Program Standard 9: Preparation to Teach Reading/Language Arts

The preparation program provides substantive, research-based instruction that effectively prepares each candidate to teach reading/language arts. Candidates in the other education specialist credential programs will be prepared to deliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction in reading, writing, listening, and speaking aligned to the state adopted English Language Arts Content Standards and the Reading/Language Arts Framework. The program provides candidates with systematic, explicit instruction to meet the needs of the full range of learners (including struggling readers, students with special needs, English language learners, speakers of non-standard English, students who have no communication/language system, and advanced learners) who have varied reading levels and language backgrounds. The preparation program provides each candidate with experience in a classroom where reading is taught. Programs will prepare Early Childhood Special Education candidates to provide literacy program aligned to The Infant Toddler Learning and Development Foundations and Preschool Learning Foundations.

Program Standard 9 Component:

Courses in which the component is addressed:

Research-based instruction for teaching reading/language arts

SPED 136; 246; 146; LEE 173; 177

Application of theories about reading, speaking, writing and listening to actual classroom settings

SPED 136; 246 146; 247; 171; 172; 175; 176; LEE 173; 177

Preparation for educating a range of learners including struggling readers, English language learners, speakers of non-standardized English, students with no language system, students with disabilities

SPED 136; 146; 247; LEE 173; 177

Knowledge to select curricula that aligns with reading/Language Arts Framework (2007) for reading, writing, listening and speaking for educational planning
Utilizing Common Core

SPED 136; 146; LEE 173; 177

Demonstrate knowledge of instructional components and content for reading and grade level standards
Utilizing Common Core

SPED 136; 246; LEE 173; 177

Demonstrate knowledge of instructional components and content for writing and grade level standards

SPED 136; 146; LEE 173; 177

Demonstrate knowledge of instructional components and content for listening and speaking and grade level standards

SPED 136; 146; 247; LEE 173, 177

Assessment of reading, writing and listening, speaking skills and knowledge about linking assessment with instructional planning and progress

SPED 130; 136; 146; LEE 173, 177

Knowledge about organizing and differentiating instruction for reading and language arts

SPED 136; 145; 171; 172; 175; 176; LEE 173, 177

Teacher candidates receive substantive, research-based instruction that effectively prepares each candidate to teach reading/language arts. LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3 provide substantive, research-based instruction to effectively prepare teacher candidates in the Education Specialist credential program to deliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction in reading, writing, and related language arts that is carefully aligned with the state adopted English Language Development and English Language Arts Academic Content Standards for Students and the Reading/Language Arts Framework and provide universal access. Candidates are also expected to integrate the standards and provide universal access into their fieldwork practice. In addition, the internal design of both courses includes the essential reading areas recommended by the National Reading Panel, an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research based literature for reading and its implementation for reading instruction.

Candidates are prepared to deliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction through the selection of specific pedagogy drawn from the state adopted English Language Arts Content Standards and the Reading/language Arts Framework. Throughout both courses, LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3, candidates are provided with several opportunities to interpret the standards to meet the needs of students who have varied reading and language backgrounds and are expected to participate in an incremental series of activities which prepare them for the development and implementation of specific literacy and technology competencies. These competencies are based on a graduated level of comprehension, serious involvement, and extend theory to practice.

Teacher candidates are provided systematic, explicit instruction to meet the needs of the full range of learners (including struggling readers, students with special needs, English language learners, speakers of non-standard English, students who have no communication/language system, and advanced learners) who have varied reading levels and language backgrounds.

Candidates study how all students, including struggling readers, students with special needs, English learners, speakers of non-standard English, and advanced learners, learn through language and become literate as they read and respond to core literature selections, participate in reading and writing workshops, participate in theme cycles and other thematic units, and create portfolios to document their learning processes and products. In their Reading coursework (LEE 173: Teaching Reading and the Arts for Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and Social Studies for Grades K-3), candidates are taught that assessment must: (a) reflect the complex nature of literacy; (b) be used to inform instruction; and (c) serve all ranges of students by helping them to become reflective self-assessors. Candidates plan and implement instruction that meets the specific needs of all students in individual, small group, and whole class settings, identify factors contributing to difficulties in reading performance, and adapt assessment and instructional materials and procedures to meet the needs of all students. Adaptations for instruction forstruggling readers, students with special needs, English language learners, speakers of non-standard English, students who have no communication/language system, and advanced learners to provide differentiated instruction and universal access are included.

Candidates are prepared to do the following:

 

Reading

Writing

Listening and Speaking

Instructional Planning/ Objectives/

Design

  • Strategically select and sequence of curricula to be taught as outlined in the Reading/ Language Arts Framework (2007) with opportunities for application using State Board of Education (SBE)-adopted core instructional materials for both instruction and intervention during fieldwork experience.
  • Understand features of instructional design including what to teach and when to introduce skills and concepts, how to select examples, how to integrate standards, and how to teach for transference and generalization of skills.

Instructional Delivery

Demonstrate knowledge of reading content as described in the RICA Content Specifications and grade level standards as outlined in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). These strands include:

  • word analysis
  • fluency
  • vocabulary, academic language, and background knowledge
  • reading comprehension
  • literary response and analysis

Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in reading as described in the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example:

  • orientation (e.g., engagement, teacher demonstration)
  • presentation (e.g., explicit instruction, modeling, pacing)
  • structured practice (e.g., reinforcement, questioning, feedback)
  • guided practice (e.g., questioning, feedback, corrections, peer-mediated instruction) independent practice and application
  • independent practice (e.g. opportunities for students to show level of mastery)

Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in writing as described in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example:

  • The systematic progression of instruction and application of foundational writing strategies, applications, and conventions
  • Writing strategies that include teaching organization and focus, penmanship (where applicable), research, technology, evaluation, and revision
  • Writing applications according to genres (grade-level appropriate) and their characteristics
  • Writing conventions appropriate to grade level standards (i.e. sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling)

 

 

Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in listening and speaking as described in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example:

  • The systematic progression of instruction and application   to develop listening and speaking strategies and speaking applications that parallel and reinforce instruction in reading and writing
  • Listening and speaking strategies that include listening comprehension, organization and delivery of oral communication, analysis and evaluation of oral and media communication (grade-level appropriate)

 

 

Assessment

Understand that assessment and instruction are linked within any curriculum. Therefore, candidates must demonstrate knowledge and ability to use multiple monitoring measures within the three basic types of assessments (as listed below) to determine students’ progress towards state adopted content standards, as referenced in Chapter Six of the Reading Language Arts Framework (2007).   Candidates need to be able to analyze and interpret results to plan effective and differentiated instruction and interventions. Knowledge of the following assessments is crucial to achieving the English Language Arts Content Standards:

  • entry level assessment for instructional planning
  • monitoring student progress
  • post test or summative assessment

Understand that assessment and instruction are linked within any curriculum. Therefore, candidates must demonstrate knowledge and ability to utilize ongoing assessments, both formal and informal to determine students’ progress towards state adopted content standards. Candidates need to be able to analyze and interpret results to plan effective and differentiated instruction and interventions.

 

Reading

Writing

Listening and Speaking

Universal

Access/

Differentiated

Instruction

Demonstrate knowledge of how to organize and manage differentiated reading instruction and interventions to meet the needs of the full range of learners, includingrecognizing that students should be grouped for interventions according to the severity of their difficulties (i.e., benchmark, strategic, and intensive groups)

For example:

  • using all components of California SBE-adopted core instructional materials to make grade-level content accessible to all students
  • using flexible grouping, individualized instruction, and whole-class instruction as needed
  • using selections listed in Recommended Literature, Pre-Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve

The preparation program provides each candidate with experience in a classroom where reading is taught. Candidates are required to take a field experience course concurrently with both reading courses: EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3 is taken with LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8, and SPED 171/172 is taken with LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3. Reading and writing skills are also intensively practiced in practicum experiences. The program places all candidates in field experience sites and student teaching assignments with teachers whose instructional approaches and methods in reading and writing are consistent with the Reading/Language Arts frameworks and who collaborate with institutional supervisors and instructors. Students are placed in schools that reflect the diversity of the Fresno region and include struggling readers, students with special needs, English language learners, speakers of non-standard English, students who have no communication/language system, and advanced learners.

Instructional Planning/Objectives/Design. In LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8, candidates are required to assess and design an instructional plan for a student in grades 4-8 with a focus on social studies and other content areas using assessments and instructional techniques consistent with the Reading/Language Arts Frameworks (2007) for vocabulary, writing, and reading comprehension. This assignment includes practicing and analyzing assessments at a field experience site where instructional approaches and methods in reading are also consistent with the state adopted Reading/Language Arts Framework. Strategies for teaching word analysis, vocabulary, writing, and comprehension are demonstrated in class and practiced by candidates in their concurrent field experience placement. In another assignment, the content area focus unit, candidates construct a week-long block plan that is implemented out in the field. The series of lessons found on the block plan demonstrate candidate's ability to make curricular choices, identify relevant skills and concepts, integrate standards, and assess the transference and generalization of the skills taught in the unit.

In LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3, candidates are required to plan, teach and assess lessons for students in grades K-3 with a focus on beginning reading instruction and instructional techniques consistent with the Reading/Language Arts Frameworks (2007) for teaching phonemic awareness, word analysis, fluency, vocabulary, writing, and reading comprehension to provide universal access. This assignment also includes practicing guided reading, use of varied research-based teaching strategies for teaching reading and writing and using assessments at a field experience site where instructional approaches and methods in reading are also consistent with the state adopted Reading/Language Arts Framework and whose student body includes struggling readers, students with special needs, English language learners, speakers of non-standard English, students who have no communication/ language system, and advanced learners. Strategies for teaching and assessing phonemic awareness, alphabetic knowledge, word analysis, vocabulary, writing, and comprehension are demonstrated in class and practiced by candidates in their concurrent field experience placement.

Instructional Delivery.LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3 were also designed to prepare teacher candidates to pass the RICA. These courses were re-constructed with a focus on the five domains tested on the revised RICA (2007) edition. Teacher candidates are prepared in the strands of word analysis, fluency, vocabulary, academic language, background knowledge, reading comprehension, and literary response and analysis. In addition to the two reading courses with concurrent field experiences that require candidates to practice and demonstrate proficiency in assessing and teaching students K-8, a series of RICA Preparation classes are offered throughout the year. These courses are designed to support credential candidates in writing essays and answering multiple-choice questions that demonstrate their understanding of the teaching of elementary school students in reading and language arts.

The program's knowledge base for the candidates preparation to teach reading-language arts is taught in LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3. The model for the knowledge base of our reading program encompasses five major areas: a) the reading process; b) integrated language arts; c) literature; d) second language acquisition; e) writing and f) assessment. Teacher candidates become familiar with the research and theory in each of these areas and are expected to use this knowledge to make decisions regarding theoretical issues, curriculum development, and classroom applications. In addition, teacher candidates are required to make practical applications of this knowledge base in K-8 school in each of the field experiences associated with each reading course. Candidates in both courses must demonstrate knowledge of effective instructional delivery by designing lessons that include orientation, presentation, structured practice, guided practice, and independent practice.

Teacher candidates demonstrate their knowledge of effective instructional delivery of writing by practicing what the professor models in the university classroom and then teach that systematic progression from modeling, guided practice, and student practice in an elementary school classroom as a part of their competencies for LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3. They are introduced to research-based teaching strategies related to phonemic awareness, alphabetic knowledge, vocabulary, grammar, and usage. This includes the study of morphology and phonology. Competencies required for EHD 178: Field Study B, SPED 171/172: Initial Practicum in SPED, and SPED 175/176: Final Practicum in SPED ensure that candidates demonstrate the ability to effectively provide instruction in writing strategies, writing applications, and written and oral English language conventions to students with diverse learning needs.

Candidates are introduced to a variety of instructional materials for the teaching and practice of reading for a wide-range of purposes. Candidates are required to demonstrate their competence in the appropriate use of instructional materials in the concurrent field experiences taken along with LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 (EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8) and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3. The students' development of competency in reading instruction continues through SPED 175/176: Final Practicum in SPED. These competencies include a wide variety of exemplary teaching practices to provide universal access.

Assessment. Candidates in the reading courses (LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3) are taught that assessment must: (a) reflect the complex nature of literacy; (b) be used to inform instruction; and (c) serve all ranges of students including struggling readers, students with special needs, English learners, speakers of non-standard English, and advanced learners by helping them to become reflective self-assessors. These beliefs are grounded in an understanding of the constructive nature of the reading process and the recognition that the most valid assessments are those that are purposeful, authentic, and on-going. Among the topics, which we consider, are: standardized and norm-referenced tests, criterion-referenced measures, informal measures, portfolio assessment, and performance assessment. Consequently,LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3, strive to help the teacher candidates develop the ability to identify, develop, administer, interpret, and critique a variety of formal and informal assessment instruments. Candidates are also exposed to entry level, summative, and formative assessments. They plan and implement instruction that meets the specific needs of all students in individual, small group, and whole class settings, identify factors contributing to difficulties in reading performance, and adapt assessment and instructional materials and procedures to meet the needs of all ranges of students including struggling readers, students with special needs, English learners, speakers of non-standard English, and advanced learners.

In each reading class, candidates complete a case study of an individual child that requires administering and analyzing a battery of assessments and prescribing instruction based on the assessment results. In LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3, candidates are expected to report on the literacy practices of the home. The use of formal and informal measures of assessment to monitor students' progress in language development, reading skills, and writing skills is also taught in both reading classes and practiced in the required, concurrent field experiences taken along with the reading classes. The identification of students in need of early and late intervention strategies and the use of these strategies in the classroom setting are taught in the required reading classes and practiced in the concurrent field placements. The case studies, as well as the content area unit in LEE 173, are opportunities for candidates to plan for effective and differentiated instruction and intervention.

SPED 130: Assessing Students with Special Needs introduces candidates to screening, survey and interview techniques in this area.  Specifically, students are instructed to use (1) Parent-Home English Language Learner-Survey, (2) Guidelines for Distinguishing Between Language Disorders and Differences, and (3) Interview Guide for English Language Learners. Among other things, teacher candidates in SPED 130 are required to complete a formal standardized academic assessment project and a curriculum-based assessment project to assess reading, writing, listening and speaking skills, etc., for instructional planning, evaluation purposes.

Universal Access/Differentiated Instruction. The program provides candidates with systematic and explicit instruction in teaching basic reading skills, including phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, vocabulary, and comprehension strategies, for all students, with special emphasis on strategies for teaching a full range of learners including students at risk of failure and those with diverse language backgrounds. Candidates learn how to provide for flexible grouping and are encouraged to always consider individual, whole, and small group reading instruction. In addition, candidates learn to enhance the students' learning environment by matching student characteristics to instruction and assessment as demonstrated in their case studies or units. Candidates are given information regarding the differentiation between product, process, and content. Candidates also participate in a variety of product creation activities that allow students to access material for all range of students. Candidates are informed about how to differentiate questions to establish student background knowledge, and learn about KWL charts. Candidates learn to determine student interest using interest inventories, and are taught the "compacting" process," a specific method for differentiation as established by "Ideas that Work," founded by the US Office of Special Education.

SPED 136: Assessment, Curriculum, & Instruction for Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities prepares candidates to design and deliver effective instruction and assessment for students with mild/moderate disabilities in reading, writing, listening, speaking, and mathematics. The course focuses on providing students with knowledge of strategies and interventions for students who are not responding to the current instructional environment with a focus on response to instruction, Universal Design for Learning, evidence-based curricula, and effective instructional methods. SPED 246: Specialized Academic Instruction for Students with Mild/Moderate Disabilities is designed to introduce students to appropriate methodology and an array of research-based strategies that address specialized academic instruction students for students with diverse learning needs, including students with mild-moderate disabilities and English Learners. A major project in this course requires students to plan and implement an intervention designed to support struggling students in reading or mathematics. In addition, co-requisite practicum experiences provide students the opportunity to apply what they've learned in these core academic courses.

SPED 146: Assessment and Instruction for Students with Moderate-Severe Disabilities utilizes a UDL framework and tools such as IEP Matrices and Participation Plans to address access to curricular areas such as literacy, for students with moderate-severe disabilities. This course assumes that students with moderate-severe disabilities will have access to core curriculum in the area of reading. All course assignments present the possibility of addressing the curricular are of reading. Finally, current and emerging research-based curricula that support the development of literacy skills for students with moderate-severe disabilities are also shared with the class (e.g. The Early Literacy Skills Builder)

Intern Program Delivery Model:
The intern preservice component includes introductory preparation relative to Standard 9: Preparation to Teach Reading-Language Arts: Teacher candidates in the Education Specialist program must successfully complete LEE 173 and LEE 177 prior to beginning the Internship Program.

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