Category B: Curriculum and Fieldwork

Standard 8: Advanced Professional Competencies

Standard 8A: Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment

The program provides opportunities for candidates to develop an advanced understanding of: the process through which students learn to read and write and the structure of the English language, including phonology, morphology and orthography; the relationships between linguistics, spelling, reading and writing; and the psychological and sociolinguistic aspects of reading and writing.

Candidates learn about the normal developmental process for each component of literacy, ranging from basic literacy skills in emergent/early readers to more advanced literacy skills required by adolescent and adult readers in content or discipline areas. Grounded in an integrated balanced approach to literacy, the program emphasizes the reciprocal nature of these literacy areas and how to capitalize on the relationships between linguistics, spelling, reading and writing to accelerate student learning. In addition, candidates are provided opportunities to examine research on the approaches, models, and curriculum for effectively developing the phonological and linguistic processes related to reading, oral language, reading comprehension, and written language abilities of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (See Course Schedules LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12, p.6; LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 7).

The program also provides candidates with a deeper examination of the psychological and sociolinguistic theoretical models of reading processes that undergird instructional practices. Seminal research is reviewed and critically analyzed regarding connections among research, theory, and instructional practices. For example, the influences of student motivation on literacy engagement and achievement are explored through Self-Determination Theory, Expectancy-Value Theory, and Sociocultural Theory. The research framed from these perspectives, including school and classroom factors, goal-oriented learning, and valuing cultural resources, are further examined across the program (See Course Schedules LEE 278: Reading Processes & Practices, p. 6; LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 7; LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 6; LEE 244: Research for Reading Professionals, p.7).

Programs provide candidates opportunities to develop advanced understanding of the continuum of state PreK-12th grade foundations/standards and frameworks in reading and literacy, and relevant research (including terminology) upon which they are based and about the effective implementation of state- and/or district- approved instructional programs and other supplemental materials, recognizing the importance of thoughtfully following a well-designed sequence of instruction.

The California Preschool Learning Foundations and Frameworks (Volume 1) and the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects standards are analyzed in relation to current literacy research in multiple courses throughout the program. Candidates are provided multiple opportunities to thoroughly analyze the research supporting these state-adopted standards and apply the research in delivering standards-based instruction during field experiences. For example, in LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12 candidates are required to conduct an inquiry project that links theory to practice. Candidates examine current research on a particular component of literacy instruction and then apply this research to particular standards-based lessons in their classrooms (See LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12, p.3). Likewise, in LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading candidates are expected to apply research-based strategies demonstrated in the course within their own classroom. The candidates are required to keep reflective journals that detail the particular standards addressed, the implementation process, observed outcomes, and a conclusion regarding the connections between the language acquisition and/or literacy research that supported strategies for English Learners (See LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 4). As candidates advance through the program, further opportunities are provided to engage in critically analyzing research-based strategies. Candidates analyze and synthesize current research on strategies used to support struggling readers and English Learners. The reports include summaries and critiques of the research and implications for how the strategies align with specific state-adopted standards (See LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 4; LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4).

The program provides candidates the opportunity to develop advanced professional knowledge of methods for using assessment data to diagnose, design, adapt and differentiate instruction for the full range of learners, including students who are experiencing extreme difficulty in literacy acquisition. The program provides opportunities for candidates to deepen their understanding of and ability to use theoretical and research-based strategies that assist students to become proficient readers, including direct instruction, flexible grouping, strategies to cognitively engage and sustain students’ interest and focus, and developing students’ strategies to self-regulate and learn independently, in order to meet the needs of English learners, students with reading difficulties, students who are proficient and advanced readers and writers, and students at every age, including preschool and adolescent learners.

The program is purposefully sequenced to scaffold candidates’ mastery of how to assess, instruct, and provide intervention for each component of literacy instruction (oral language development, word analysis, fluency, vocabulary development, listening/reading comprehension, and written language development). The program provides candidates opportunities to learn the types and uses of assessments across the continuum of literacy skill components, from early/emergent literacy skills to advanced literacy skills, including oral language, concepts of print, phonemic awareness, word analysis, vocabulary development, written language development, and comprehension. To connect with current school practices, candidates are engaged in analyzing relevant curriculum-embedded, California norm-referenced and criterion-based assessments (See Course Schedule LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 6). This analysis is designed to develop candidates’ knowledge on how such assessments can be used for screening, placement, and summative evaluation. In addition, candidates are required to complete two assessment projects. These projects facilitate candidates’ understanding of how to use norm-referenced (Clay’s Observation Survey), criterion-based (Analytic Reading Inventory), and other formative assessment tools for screening, diagnosis, and progress monitoring (See LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 3). The candidates then apply these same tools in clinical field experiences to design and implement differentiated intervention plans through small-group tutoring and individual intensive intervention (See LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4; LEE 234: Clinical Experiences in Reading Assessment & Instruction, p.4).

The program provides multiple opportunities for candidates to review research and apply the course content in practical instructional contexts to facilitate deeper learning. Initial courses provide candidates a strong foundation of research-based instructional strategies that effectively support student learning of each component of an effective literacy program and the interdependent nature of the components in constructing an integrated, balanced approach to instruction. For example, in LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12 candidates examine how oral language development and written language development are intertwined (See Course Schedule LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12, p.6), and in LEE 278: Reading Processes & Practices candidates review Automaticity Theory and Reading Systems Theory to develop a deeper understanding of the relationship between word analysis and fluency (See Course Schedule LEE 278: Reading Processes & Practices, p.6). LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12 includes assignments throughout the course so candidates can learn how research-based instructional strategies work in practical situations to support specific areas of literacy instruction. Further, LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12 provides candidates opportunities to develop an understanding of how to create a balanced literacy program through their Theory to Practice Project (See LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12, p.3).

Candidates’ competency in learning to develop a balanced instructional approach that integrates multiple areas of literacy is further enhanced in LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading. The key literacy areas of oral language development, word analysis, fluency, vocabulary development, listening/reading comprehension, and written language development are taught in this course, with a special emphasis on modifying curriculum and instruction to meet the needs of linguistically and culturally diverse students. In addition, candidates are expected to apply these instructional models in their own classrooms. Through the Teaching Strategy Journal, candidates reflect on their process of learning how research-based instructional strategies work to develop the language and literacy skills of English Learners (See LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 4).

Building on the candidates’ knowledge about effective literacy instruction, the final phase of the program prepares candidates with the capacity to plan, implement, evaluate and modify literacy instruction to meet the needs of students with diverse literacy abilities and linguistic or cultural backgrounds. LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, and LEE 234: Clinical Experiences in Reading Assessment & Instruction provide candidates with direct, guided experiences in learning how to assess the key literacy components of oral language development, word analysis, fluency, vocabulary development, listening/reading comprehension, and written language development. In these courses, students learn how to select, administer, and interpret assessment tools for each of these literacy areas. Specific Reader Assessment Projects provide experiences for candidates to learn how to assess the literacy components appropriate for a beginning young reader and an older struggling reader (See LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 3), and the clinical field experiences require candidates to apply this learning to design and implement differentiated intervention plans through small-group tutoring and individual intensive intervention (See LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4; LEE 234: Clinical Experiences in Reading Assessment & Instruction, p.4).

The program provides opportunities for candidates to learn about the types of disabilities that have implications for literacy development and to learn effective strategies and practices for providing multiple levels of intervention, including strategic and intensive interventions, or RtI Tiers 1, 2, and 3.

The program provides candidates with multiple opportunities to learn about the implications for literacy struggles and when such struggles warrant differentiated instruction and intervention. Course assignments and clinical experiences provide candidates opportunities to understand the implications of delays, compare assessment results to typical developmental patterns, and construct reports that detail whether further assessment and/or intervention procedures are necessary (See LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 4; See LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4). In addition, through examination of research and practical field assignments, candidates develop a deep understanding of the implications of the unique developmental differences experienced by second language learners and specific differentiation techniques to mediate the acceleration of language and literacy for English Learners (See LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 5).

The program provides opportunities for candidates to learn how to expand the curriculum to include online and offline reading and literacy experiences that incorporate multiple genres, multiple perspectives, and the use of media and communication technologies to prepare learners for literacy tasks of the 21st century.

The program provides candidates multiple opportunities to develop knowledge of digital literacies and competence in facilitating student and teacher use of such 21st Century skills. Several courses provide candidates opportunities to examine research on the characteristics of digital literacies and effective instructional practices for developing these skills. For example, candidates examine research about critical literacy and are required to implement critical literacy instructional strategies in their classroom lessons. Through these practical experiences, candidates learn the ways that critical literacy can teach students to evaluate information from texts. In addition, specific attention is given to research on digital and visual literacies, as candidates examine strategies to develop students’ abilities to access, evaluate, and integrate information found in media and digital resources (See Course Schedule LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12, p.6). Specific tools and procedures to assess student information literacy skills and 21st Century literacy skills are explored. These assessments are then coupled with an examination of research on how to support and develop students’ abilities to comprehend and produce multimodal text sources that will enable the to succeed in a technologically-oriented society (See Course Schedule LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 6).

Candidates are provided multiple opportunities to demonstrate competence in linking research on digital and multimodal literacy during practical experiences. Candidates are required to analyze technology resources and their instructional uses, and then use research to support suggested recommendations for improvements as a key component of their Literacy Program Evaluation Reports (See Rubric LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.9). In addition, candidates must apply knowledge of digital literacies during their clinical field experiences (See LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4; LEE 234: Clinical Experiences in Reading Assessment & Instruction, p.4). 

Category B: Curriculum and Fieldwork

Standard 8: Advanced Professional Competencies

Standard 8B: Leadership, Collaboration, and Professional Development

The program provides opportunities for candidates to learn about local, state, and national policies that affect reading and literacy instruction and the criteria used for developing instructional programs and supplemental strategic intervention materials identified in the California Reading/Language Arts Framework.

The program is designed to prepare effective literacy leaders capable of advocating for effective programs that support student learning. To develop this competence, the program provides candidates multiple opportunities to examine education’s place in a broader socio-political context and to learn about local, state, and national policies that impact reading and literacy instruction. The development and implications of state-adopted standards, such as The California Preschool Learning Foundations and Frameworks (Volume 1) and the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects, are analyzed in relation to current literacy research throughout the program. Candidates learn how to craft instructional programs and strategic intervention instruction to meet the expectations of these policies through deep exploration of the research on effective instructional practices (See Course Schedule LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12, p.6; LEE 278: Reading Processes & Practices, p.6) and the implications of such policies on the language acquisition and literacy development of English Learners (See Course Schedules LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 7). Candidates are provided opportunities to learn about local literacy policies through examining school and district-level intervention procedures. Candidates conduct multilevel (teachers and administrators) analysis of the reading and English Development intervention programs. Using evidence-based research criteria, candidates construct reports with recommendations for revisions to intervention procedures and program components (See Course Schedule LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 6; LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 5; Rubric LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.9).

In addition, the Literacy, Early, Bilingual & Special Education Department hosts two annual conferences that provide candidates opportunities to explore literacy policies in a broader context. The César Chávez Conference on Literacy and Educational Policy and the Dual Language Conference engage parents, teachers, community leaders, state/district/school-level administrators and policy makers and national and international researchers in discussion and reflection on issues of educational equity and academic excellence for all students. Candidates are required to attend these conferences as course assignments. These experiences are designed to develop candidates’ understanding of the ways policies impact literacy instruction, the resources and assets within diverse cultural communities, and strategies that encourage community-education partnerships to facilitate the literacy and language development of all students (See Chavez Conference 2013; Chavez Conference 2012; Dual Language Conference 2012).

Candidates are provided opportunities to develop advanced professional knowledge about how to evaluate, select and support implementation of programs based on the needs of the local school/district and community population and how to examine, evaluate and select educational technologies to assess or complement individualized or group instruction and to plan, maintain records, and communicate with stakeholders.

The program provides candidates opportunities to develop advanced professional knowledge about how to evaluate, select, and support implementation of literacy programs for specific school and district populations. LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading provides candidates with focused instruction and experiences in evaluating literacy programs (See Course Schedule LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.6). Candidates complete a literacy program evaluation report based on an intensive comprehensive examination of a school-wide and/or particular grade-level literacy program. Candidates collect multiple sources of qualitative and quantitative data to examine student achievement, intervention procedures, classroom instruction, and instructional resources. The collection of multiple sources of data, including student assessment results, teacher interviews and surveys, and classroom observations, allows for candidates to generate reliable information about the strengths and weaknesses of the literacy program. To develop recommendations for this report candidates are guided to use the research analyzed across their program and the specific population served by the school/district (See Rubric LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.9).

The program provides candidates multiple opportunities to develop advanced professional knowledge about how to examine, evaluate, and select educational technologies to both assess and complement instruction. Candidates examine research on the characteristics of digital literacies and effective instructional practices for developing these skills (See Course Schedule LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12, p.6). Candidates learn about specific tools and procedures to assess student information literacy skills and 21st Century literacy skills, maintain records, and prepare reports for various stakeholders (See Course Schedule LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 6; Rubric LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.9).

The program provides opportunities for candidates to develop advanced professional communication and facilitation skills for advocating for a comprehensive literacy program through scholarly writing and/or collaborative work with students and their families, teachers, administrators, specialists, and other interested stakeholders to develop and sustain a comprehensive literacy program.

The program provides candidates several opportunities to develop advanced professional skills for advocating for comprehensive literacy programs. The program is designed to develop candidates’ professional scholarly writing skills as well as collaborative collegial communication skills in this regard. Candidates are provided several opportunities to examine literacy programs and use research analyzed in courses to frame their conclusions and justify recommended revisions (See Course Schedule LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 6; LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 5; Rubric LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.9).

In addition, candidates are provided multiple opportunities to develop and demonstrate their competence in working with other educators to facilitate the implementation of state-and/or district-adopted literacy curricula at classroom and school levels. Throughout the field experience courses, seminar sessions are structured to provide space for reflective conversations and supportive feedback on selecting curriculum materials and adapting instructional strategies (See LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4; LEE 234: Clinical Experiences in Reading Assessment & Instruction, p.4; LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.3). In LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, these facilitation skills are further refined and mastered through a semester-long continuous school-based peer mentoring experience. Candidates mentor a grade-level team of colleagues and/or an individual teacher in the implementation of adopted curricula and standards (See LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.3).

The program provides opportunities for candidates to develop professional knowledge about the characteristics of effective professional development, including relevant research, adult learning theory, and best practices, in order to plan, implement and evaluate professional development that will enhance teachers’ content knowledge, assessment, and instruction in all aspects of a comprehensive literacy program at the county, district, school and classroom levels.

Advanced courses provide candidates with a thorough review of research on characteristics of effective professional development. Candidates are provided explicit instruction in how these characteristics align with the research on adult learning theory. Candidates are required to apply this knowledge in analyzing a school literacy program. Candidates complete a literacy program evaluation report, which involves an intensive comprehensive examination of a school-wide and/or particular grade-level literacy program. Candidates collect multiple sources of qualitative and quantitative data to examine student achievement, intervention procedures, classroom instruction, and instructional resources. Based on the findings of the program evaluation, candidates provide administrators with recommended revisions of intervention components, instructional practices and professional development needs to enhance the effectiveness of the programs (See Rubric LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.9).

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