Category B: Curriculum and Fieldwork

Standard 7: Research and Evaluation Methodology

The program provides opportunities for candidates to learn basic research and evaluation methods including research design, sampling, selection of measures or instruments, and statistical procedures.

The program provides candidates multiple opportunities to learn research methods and procedures as tools for analyzing, critiquing, and interpreting literacy research results. For example, in LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts candidates examine current research on a particular area of literacy and construct a report that specifically addresses the methods and procedures of the studies (See Rubric LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 8). Similarly, in LEE 244: Research for Reading Professionals, design, sampling, and statistical procedures of research methods are examined in the context of studies investigating various areas of phonological and linguistic processes related to reading, oral language, reading comprehension, and written language. Candidates analyze the research methods and procedures and produce a report that evaluates the quality of research using the methods and procedures as key analytic guides (See Rubrics LEE 244: Research for Reading Professionals, p.8-9).  Specific analysis of research measures and instruments is highlighted in LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities. Candidates analyze research on the psychometric properties and uses for particular formal and informal assessment tools  (See Course Description LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p.1).

The program provides candidates with focused instruction and experiences in evaluating literacy programs that generate reliable information about program strengths, weaknesses, and effects on instruction practices at the classroom, school, or district levels.

The program provides candidates with focused instruction and experiences in evaluating literacy programs. Candidates complete a literacy program evaluation report in LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading. The process for completing the report involves an intensive comprehensive examination of a school-wide and/or particular grade-level literacy program. Candidates collect multiple sources of qualitative and quantitative data to examine student achievement, intervention procedures, classroom instruction, and instructional resources. The collection of multiple sources of data, including student assessment results, teacher interviews and surveys, and classroom observations, allows for candidates to generate reliable information about the strengths and weaknesses of the literacy program (See LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.3).

The program provides candidates the opportunity to engage in data analysis to diagnose, monitor and evaluate student progress at the individual, group, classroom, grade level, school, and district levels and to develop techniques for analyzing aggregate student data (at the school and district level) for making instructional decisions and for designing and providing staff development activities.

The program is purposefully sequenced to scaffold candidates’ mastery of how to analyze data to diagnose and monitor students’ progress to plan, implement, and modify instruction. Candidates are provided with direct, guided experiences in learning how to use assessment results to design differentiated instruction for individual students. Specifically, candidates are provided experiences to learn how to analyze literacy assessments results for a beginning young reader (Early Reader Project) and an older struggling reader (Older Project). Using the data from these projects, candidates develop case study reports, make instructional recommendations and develop individualized intervention plans (See LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 3). Candidates’ mastery of assessment data analysis is deepened through small-group intervention and individual intensive intervention supervised clinical experiences. In both contexts of these contexts, candidates administer and interpret formative assessments. The results of these diagnoses are used to design an intervention plan. During tutoring sessions, candidates implement the selected instructional strategies and administer formative assessments to monitor student progress. At the conclusion of the tutoring, candidates administer assessments to evaluate student progress (See LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4; LEE 234: Clinical Experiences in Reading Assessment & Instruction, p.4).

The program also provides candidates with multiple opportunities to engage in data analysis at broader classroom, grade, and school levels. These opportunities allow candidates to develop the capacity to analyze aggregate data to inform instructional practices and professional development activities. For example, one assignment requires candidates to conduct a multilevel (teachers and administrators) analysis of the RTI process. Based on the findings of this analysis, recommended revisions of assessment and instructional practices are provided. In addition, candidates make recommendations to school administrators regarding revisions to intervention components and professional development needs to create a more effective intervention program (See Course Schedule LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 6). A similar assignment addresses the needs of English Learners and requires candidates to conduct an analysis of English Language Development programs and procedures. Based on the findings of this analysis, candidates provide administrators with recommended revisions of intervention components and professional development needs to enhance the effectiveness of the programs for culturally and linguistically diverse students (See LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 5).  In addition to analyzing single components of school-wide interventions, candidates are required to complete a comprehensive examination of a school-wide and/or grade-level literacy program. Candidates collect multiple sources of qualitative and quantitative data to examine student achievement, intervention procedures, classroom instruction, and instructional resources. Based on the findings of the program evaluation, candidates provide administrators with recommended revisions of intervention components, instructional practices and professional development needs to enhance the effectiveness of the programs (See Rubric LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.9).

The program provides opportunities for candidates to learn to evaluate the technical adequacy of assessments, such as reliability and content and construct validity, based on psychometric standards and applicable populations, and to utilize best practices in the selection, administration, and use of assessments for developing a systemic framework to measure student progress and for planning, monitoring, evaluating, and improving instruction.

Candidates analyze research on the psychometric properties and uses for particular formal and informal assessment tools to address specific literacy needs (LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 1). The program provides candidates opportunities to learn the types and uses of assessments across the continuum of literacy skill components, from early/emergent literacy skills to advanced literacy skills, including oral language, concepts of print, phonemic awareness, word analysis, vocabulary development, written language development, and comprehension. To connect with current school practices, candidates are engaged in analyzing relevant curriculum-embedded, California norm-referenced and criterion-based assessments (See Course Schedule LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 6). This analysis is designed to develop candidates’ knowledge on how such assessments can be used for screening, placement, and summative evaluation. In addition, candidates are required to complete two assessment projects. These projects facilitate candidates’ understanding of how to use norm-referenced (Clay’s Observation Survey), criterion-based (Analytic Reading Inventory), and other formative assessment tools for screening, diagnosis, and progress monitoring (See LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 3). The candidates then apply these same tools in clinical field experiences to design and implement differentiated intervention plans through small-group tutoring and individual intensive intervention (See LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4; LEE 234: Clinical Experiences in Reading Assessment & Instruction, p.4).

The program provides opportunities for candidates to understand large-scale assessment design, the design of state and district assessment systems, and the relationship between those assessments and state frameworks, proficiency standards and benchmarks. The program provides opportunities for candidates to understand state and federal reading initiatives and to learn how to develop, procure and implement programs around those initiatives.

The California Preschool Learning Foundations and Frameworks (Volume 1) and the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects standards are analyzed in relation to current literacy research in multiple courses throughout the program. Candidates are provided multiple opportunities to thoroughly analyze the research supporting these state-adopted standards and apply the research in delivering standards-based instruction during field experiences.  For example, in LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12 candidates are required to conduct an inquiry project that links theory to practice. Candidates examine current research on a particular component of literacy instruction and then apply this research to particular standards-based lessons in their classrooms (See LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12, p.3). Likewise, in LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading candidates are expected to apply research-based strategies demonstrated in the course within their own classroom. The candidates are required to keep reflective journals that detail the particular standards addressed, the implementation process, observed outcomes, and a conclusion regarding the connections between the language acquisition and/or literacy research that supported strategies for English Learners (See LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 4). In addition, students complete instructional strategy research analysis reports in LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities and in LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts. For both of these courses, students analyze and synthesize current research on strategies used to support struggling readers and English Learners. The reports include summaries and critiques of the research and implications for how the strategies align with specific state-adopted standards (See LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 4; LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4).

The program provides opportunities for candidates to learn the skills for critically analyzing seminal, developing and cutting edge research findings in the literature related to literacy education. The program provides opportunities for candidates to learn to critically examine the research and program recommendations of experts in the field of literacy acquisition and instruction as an invaluable aid in the decision-making and leadership process, keeping in mind the limitations of applicability of research based on inclusion of specific target populations.

The purpose of the program is to prepare candidates with a strong theoretical foundation on literacy development and the capacity to apply this knowledge in instructional decision-making and leadership processes. In line with this vision, the program provides candidates the opportunity to critically examine theoretical perspectives and scientific research on literacy processes and language development identified within the California Preschool Learning Foundations and Frameworks (Volume 1) and the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. In addition, practical fieldwork experiences are systematically integrated throughout the program to provide candidates opportunities to develop an understanding of the limitations of applicability of research on specific target populations.

LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12 provides candidates with a deep exploration of the research on effective instructional practices for developing phonological and linguistic processes related to reading, oral language, reading comprehension, and written language. LEE 278: Reading Processes & Practices proceeds to deepen candidates’ connections among research, theory and pedagogy by examining the theoretical models of reading processes that undergird instructional practices (See Course Schedules LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12, p.6; LEE 278: Reading Processes & Practices, p.6). Candidates apply the theoretical models and instructional practices reviewed as part of an inquiry project. Candidates examine current research on a particular component of literacy instruction and then implement standards-based lessons in their classrooms. The inquiry project requires candidates to reflect on how the implementation of practices aligned and/or conflicted with current research, submit written reports, and make presentations detailing their critical analysis (See LEE 213: Teaching the Language Arts K-12, p.3).

LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading extends the knowledge base provided by the previous courses and examines the implications of these theoretical models for language acquisition and literacy development of English Learners. Candidates are provided with a deep exploration of research on the approaches, models, and curriculum for effectively developing the phonological and linguistic processes related to reading, oral language, reading comprehension, and written language abilities of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (See Course Schedule LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 7).   Candidates then apply research-based strategies demonstrated in the course within their own classroom. The candidates are required to keep reflective journals that detail the particular standards addressed, the implementation process, observed outcomes, and a critical analysis regarding the connections between the language acquisition and/or literacy research that supported strategies for English Learners (See LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 4).

LEE 244: Research for Reading Professionals provides candidates with a deeper understanding of research methods and design features as tools for analyzing, critiquing, and interpreting seminal literacy research. Design, sampling, and statistical procedures of research methods are examined in the context of seminal literacy studies investigating key areas of phonological and linguistic processes related to reading, oral language, reading comprehension, and written language (See Course Schedule LEE 244: Research for Reading Professionals, p.7). Candidates analyze the research methods and procedures and produce a report that critically analyzes the quality of research and conclusions (See Rubrics LEE 244: Research for Reading Professionals, p.8-9).

As candidates advance through the program, further opportunities are provided to engage in critically analyzing research-based strategies. Candidates analyze and synthesize current research on strategies used to support struggling readers and English Learners. The reports include summaries and critiques of the research and implications for how the strategies align with specific state-adopted standards (See LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 4; LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4). As a culminating experience, candidates complete a comprehensive literacy program evaluation. Research reviewed throughout the program courses is analyzed in the context of the broader levels of implementation. Further, the implications of the research to support enhanced literacy programs is provided (See Rubric LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.9).

The program provides opportunities for candidates to develop clear communication strategies for sharing individual, classroom, school, district and state assessment results to a variety of audiences and to identify relevant implications for instructional programs and accountability, and for target student populations, that might assist their communities in obtaining support for literacy development.

The program provides multiple opportunities for candidates to develop communication strategies for sharing assessment results with various audiences, including teachers, parents, and administrators. Several opportunities are provided for candidates to develop competence in reporting assessment results for individual students. Through course-based field assignments and clinical experiences, candidates prepare case study reports based on an analysis of results across literacy domains; the report concludes with instructional recommendations and is shared with parents, teachers, and administrators (See LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 4; LEE 230: Supervised Teaching of Reading/Language Arts, p. 4; LEE 234: Clinical Experiences in Reading Assessment & Instruction, p.4).

Multiple opportunities are also provided for candidates to develop competence in reporting assessment results for broader classroom and school levels. For example, one assignment requires candidates to conduct a multilevel (teachers and administrators) analysis of the RTI process. Based on the findings of this analysis, recommended revisions of assessment and instructional practices are provided. In addition, candidates make recommendations to school administrators regarding revisions to intervention components and professional development needs to create a more effective intervention program (See Course Schedule LEE 224: Assessment & Development of Reading Abilities, p. 6). A similar assignment addresses the needs of English Learners and requires candidates to conduct an analysis of English Language Development programs and procedures. Based on the findings of this analysis, candidates provide administrators with recommended revisions of intervention components and professional development needs to enhance the effectiveness of the programs for culturally and linguistically diverse students (See LEE 215: Language Issues in Reading, p. 5).  In addition to analyzing single components of school-wide interventions, candidates are required to complete a comprehensive examination of a school-wide and/or grade-level literacy program. Candidates collect multiple sources of qualitative and quantitative data to examine student achievement, intervention procedures, classroom instruction, and instructional resources. Based on the findings of the program evaluation, candidates provide administrators with recommended revisions of intervention components, instructional practices and professional development needs to enhance the effectiveness of the programs (See Rubric LEE 254: Supervised Field Experiences in Reading, p.9).

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