Standard 7

Preparation for Health Management Responsibilities within the School Setting

The program helps candidates understand the school nurse’s role in providing health leadership and management, health education, health research, direct client care, training and supervision of other personnel as applicable, and planning and coordination of healthcare services and programs.  The program helps candidates understand and demonstrate a collaborative approach to providing and/or facilitation health-related activities, including acting as a member of a team addressing student achievement.  The program provides opportunities for the candidate to demonstrate effective communication, using a variety of supporting technology, with a wide range of audiences including students, staff, parents and community. 

The program helps candidates apply his/her entry level knowledge of the standard nursing process of assessment, diagnosis, outcome identification, planning implementation and evaluation specifically with the school setting in order to resolve or reduce barriers to student learning.

Criterion 1: The Candidate understands the health leadership role in school nursing practice:

Candidates are introduced to the Standards of Professional Performance in NURS 184, Introduction to School Nursing (seminar). These are clearly addressed by Susan Proctor in the required program text by Janice Selekman (2012) School Nursing: A Comprehensive Text, and in the publication by the National Association of School Nurses (2011) School Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. Standard 15 specifically relates to the leadership role of the school nurse.

Five key measurement criteria in this standard will be used as a guide in providing examples of how leadership is addressed in the program: (1) Measurement criteria, “Engages in teamwork as a team player and a team builder:” In the two seminar courses, candidates work with a partner in the development of an online Blackboard presentation for classmates requiring teamwork. A key assignment in NURS 186, School Nurse Practicum I, asks candidates to complete a case study on a school age child that requires collaboration, communication, and working together with other members of the education team. In NURS 185, School Nurse Seminar, candidates complete an assignment that asks the candidate to interview and shadow three other professional members of the education team to gain insight into their roles and how the school nurse interacts with these members. (2) Measurement criteria, “Displays the ability to define a clear vision, the associated goals, and a plan to implement and measure progress.” In both practicum courses, candidates write their own Student Goals and Learning Objectives in the beginning of the semester which they need to plan and achieve during the semester, and which must include a means by which the goals can be measured. In both practicum experiences, candidates also demonstrate their ability to use the nursing process in developing care plans for clients with chronic health problems and those with handicapping conditions which require teamwork in working with others. The ability to develop appropriate care plans assures that students will receive those services necessary to reduce barriers to learning.  (3) Measurement criteria, “Teaches others to succeed by mentoring and other strategies:” Candidates demonstrate leadership through instruction, health promotion, and teaching of children, adolescents, families, and staff to strive for a healthier lifestyle and wellness. (4) Measurement criteria, “Directs the coordination of care across settings and among caregivers:” With preceptor supervision, candidates are expected to demonstrate their ability to train and supervise unlicensed assistive personnel (UAPs) in carrying out tasks, assisting with medications and/or in providing special health care procedures, thus assuring students receive those services necessary for success in the classroom. Candidates often choose to train UAPS as their Experienced Nurse Project for which they must submit a proposal and a plan for carrying out the training to their preceptor and clinical instructor for approval. (5) Measurement criteria, “Serves in key roles in the school and work settings by participating on committees, councils, and administrative teams:” In both practicum experiences, candidates are encouraged to take on leadership roles, i.e., presenting on the role of the school nurse or health issues at a faculty meeting or a school board meeting; participation in the planning and in coordinating a school health program, or involvement in planning a school wide disaster preparedness activity; reviewing health policies and initiating changes as appropriate. Candidates are encouraged to discuss their interest in leadership activities with their preceptor and clinical instructor. Extra time is granted for meaningful leadership roles beyond the usual school nurse activities.

See Sec. 3 (p. 396 and p. 401): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus checklists – E31 and S31 for candidate understanding of the health leadership role in school nursing practice.

Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of the health leadership role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi.  All research questions are given a numerical value based on the quality of the candidates’ answers.  Other assignments included in that module are also given a numerical value based on mastery of the material and general understanding. Negative and positive feedback is given to the candidate on all work in each of the four modules per semester.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of the health leadership role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi with points given as above. Candidates’ journaling should show growth in Leadership. Additionally, in both practicum courses, the candidate must choose to complete a Leadership Project or an Experienced Nurse Project.   These projects are approved by the instructor and preceptor for value in the candidate’s growth in leadership.  These projects are monitored throughout the semester by the instructor via the candidates’ journaling four times per semester and the midterm conference.  The final project is submitted at the end of the semester for credit.

Criterion 2: The Candidate understands the health management role in school nursing practice:

The various roles of the school nurse manager are covered extensively in NURS 184, Introduction to School Nursing (seminar). The role is clarified readings in both the text by Janice Selekman (2012) School Nursing: A Comprehensive Text, and in the publication by the National Association of School Nurses (2012) School Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. Standard 16, in School Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. Following are examples of subject matter covered in NURS 184:  An initial assignment asking candidates to write their own philosophy of school nursing; role of the school nurse in coordinated school health programs (Wk 2); Standards of Performance, the Ed Code, other state and federal laws, elements  of a lawsuit, professional organization position statements that guide practice, district policies (Wk 3); school health models, conceptual framework, program management, concepts of administration, management and leadership, conflict management, employee satisfaction (Wk 4); managing various health service programs (Wk 5); outcome identification in practice, school based clinics, California Code of Regulations (Wk 6); community collaboration, School Health Index, ethical decision making (Wk 7); managing healthcare issues, decision making (Wk 8-9); collaboration, the IEP process, children with special needs, school nurse as team player (Wks 10-15).  In NURS 185, School Nurse Seminar, the role of the school nurse as manager relates to the secondary population: Coordinated school health programs, empowerment in school nursing, functions and management of the health office (Wk 2); administrative services, funding sources, meeting the needs of the uninsured, health promotion and health fairs (Wk 3); evidence based practice, making a school board presentation (Wk 4); managing adolescent health issues of all types (Wks 5-10); school safety issues and disaster preparedness (Wk 11); school based clinics, collaboration and partnerships, school nurse responsibility related to political issues and legislation, school nurse competence and performance evaluation (Wk 12); school nurse role in research (Wk 13); legal and ethical issues, resource mapping (Wk 14); staff recruitment, quality assurance, and professional commitment, revisiting personal philosophy of school nursing (Wk 15).

In practicum experiences (NURS 186 and NURS 187): Several key measurement criteria in this standard will be used to demonstrate how candidates gain insight into and participate in program management in their practicum experiences under the watchful eye of a qualified school nurse preceptor: (1) Measurement criteria, “Manages school health services as appropriate to the nurse’s education, position, and practice environment.” In both practicum experiences, candidates have the opportunity to grow in their understanding of the role of the school nurse as manager of health services through observing a qualified school nurse preceptor who also gives the candidate the opportunity to demonstrate their ability to fulfill the role of school nurse manager under supervision. (2) Measurement criteria, “Conducts school health needs assessment to identify current health problems and identify the need for new programs.”  Candidates have teaching assignments in both practicum experiences that require the candidate do needs assessment or conducting a survey to determine need educational needs of students. Through working with a preceptor, candidates also understand that a needs assessment must be done whenever new program development or health services are being considered. (3) Measurement criteria, “Develops and implements health policies and procedures in collaboration with the school administration, the board of health, and the board of education.” A journal question in NURS 186 asks candidates to review school health policies and to identify outdated polices or lack of policies. Candidates are then asked to outline the steps that must take place to make changes or create a health services policy and procedure in order to bring it before the board of education. Under the supervision of their preceptor, candidates may opt to work on making a policy/procedure change as a student goal or may select it an Experienced Nurse Project for which they need to submit a proposal for approval to their preceptor and clinical instructor. (4) Measurement criteria, “ Demonstrates knowledge of existing school health programs and current health trends that may affect client care, the sources of funding for each, school policy related to each, and local, state, and federal laws governing each.” Working with a qualified school nurse preceptor, candidates learn first-hand about existing school health programs and trends that may affect client care. In NURS 186, School Nurse Practicum I, a journal question asks candidates to find out about district funding sources and the amount of funds out of the General Fund that is allotted for health services for supplies, personnel, and programs. They also learn about other sources of funding, i.e., grants. In NURS 187, School Nurse Practicum II, a journal question asks candidates to find out about the different types of billing for health services, i.e. Medi-Cal. Before candidates proceed with providing health services or teach, they are expected to review related sections of the CA Education Code and other state and federal laws before proceeding. This is also the case with completing written assignments.  (5) Measurement criteria, “Adopts and uses available technology appropriate to the work setting.” In their clinical experiences, candidates are expected to understand the use of current technology and use it in their practicum experiences under the direction of their preceptor, i.e., computer software program use - logging students into the health office, recording screening results, and contributing to reports; and use of the other forms of communication with insight into confidential issues related to technology use.

See Sec. 3 (p. 396 and p. 401): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus checklists – E31through E40 and S31 through S40 for candidate understanding for the health management role in school nursing practice.

See Sec. 3 (p. 407): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus, Evaluation of Student Professional Dispositions:
Disposition 2, “Candidate demonstrates critical thinking skills.”
Disposition 3, “Candidate demonstrates the ability to make ethical judgments.”
Disposition 5, “Candidate demonstrates a collaborative disposition.”
Disposition 6, “Candidate demonstrates enthusiasm for life-long learning.”

Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of the health management role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi. Students receive negative and/or positive feed-back on every assignment that is above as well as the others in the syllabi.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of the health management role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi as well as the Preceptor Checklist (as above in the boxed area) and the Professional Dispositions (as above in the boxed area).  These two documents are completed by the preceptor at the end of the semester.  Validation on the candidate’s progress is also assessed during the midterm conference and via their journaling in each of the four modules.

Criterion 3: The Candidate understands the role of the school nurse with regard to health education:

The role of the school nurse as a health educator is specifically addressed in NURS 184, Introduction to School Nursing, in Week 10. Following are examples of subject matter: Health education a component of the comprehensive school health program, conceptual model for health teaching, state and national standards for health education, developing a health education program, family and community involvement in health education, health promotion for faculty and staff. In NURS 185, the role of the school nurse in health promotion and health educator is addressed in weeks 2-10 as it relates to students with special needs and a variety of adolescent health issues. The guidelines for candidates as school nurse health educators is based on the National Association of School Nurses (2011) School Nursing: Scope & Standards of Practice, Standard 5B;  and “The School Nurse’s Role as a Health Educator” authored by Susan G. Praeger and is included in Janice Selekman’s  (2012) School Nursing: A Comprehensive Text.  In practicum courses, at the elementary and secondary levels, candidates have ample opportunity to obtain health teaching experience under the supervision of a qualified school nurse preceptor. Several key measurement criteria in Standard 5B will be used as a guide in providing examples of how candidates gain understanding for health teaching in practicum courses: (1) Measurement criteria, “Provides general health education to the student body at large through direct classroom instruction or expert consultation.” In NURS 186, candidates teach a health lesson in a classroom of elementary school age children for which they must identify a need, research the subject matter, develop a teaching outline, and teach a health lesson based on grade appropriate subject matter. In NURS 187 (secondary), candidates choose between facilitating discussions on a health issue(s) with a select small group of students or work with a teacher to incorporate curriculum into a health module that has not been previously covered, the candidate must also teach the health lesson. (2) Measurement criteria, “Uses health promotion and health teaching methods appropriate to the situation and the client’s developmental level, learning readiness, ability to learn, language preference, and culture.” Candidates must base health lessons on grade appropriate learner readiness guidelines in the California Department of Education (CDE) (2003) Health Framework for California Public Schools: Grades Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, and the CDE (2010) Health Education Standards, as well as modify lessons to accommodate cultural differences and other students with special needs. (3) Measurement criteria, “Seeks opportunities for feedback and evaluation of the effectiveness of the strategies used.” As part of health teaching assignments, candidates are expected to develop pre-post assessment tools in order to evaluate learning outcomes. Preceptors are expected to be present during lessons taught to offer feedback, as well as the classroom teacher. Candidates are also to critique their own teaching effectiveness and areas for needed improvement in the future. (4) Measurement criteria, “School nurse participates in the assessment of needs for health education and health instruction for the school community.” Candidates are expected to carry out a needs assessment before deciding on subject matter to teach in the classroom. (5) Measurement criteria, “Participates in the evaluation of health curricula and health instructional materials and activities.” In NURS 187, School Nurse Practicum II, candidates are asked to review and evaluate the secondary health curriculum at a school site to determine if it is substantial and/or relevant. In completing the assignment, Health Ed. Curriculum & Teaching, related to incorporating new curriculum into to an existing health module, candidates must determine its need through reviewing existing materials.

See Sec. 3 (p. 396 and p. 401): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus checklists – E5, E12, E13, E14, and S3, S11, S13, S24 for candidate understanding of the role of the school nurse as a health educator.

Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of the health education role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi. Students receive feed-back on every assignment that is listed in the above mentioned assignments as well as others in the syllabi.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of the health education  role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi as well as the Preceptor Checklist (as above in the boxed area) and the Professional Dispositions (as above in the boxed area).  These two documents are completed by the preceptor at the end of the semester.  Validation on the candidate’s progress is also assessed during the midterm conference and via their journaling in each of the four modules.  Preceptors also approve and observe the candidate’s teaching assignment.

Criterion 4: The Candidate understands the role of school nurse with regard to research and its importance:

A course in nursing research is required prerequisites for entering the program. Candidates in this post baccalaureate credential program are not asked to complete a research project though they are required to understand the importance of research as a basis for school nursing practice, the different types of research projects, and how to plan and carry out a research project at a school site. In the course of answering weekly questions in seminar courses, candidates must read relevant research articles. Candidates must also research a topic with a partner which they will share as an online Blackboard presentation for classmates in each of the seminars. In NURS 185, candidates have a choice of researching an adolescent mental health condition and writing a paper, or reading a book that relates specifically to an adolescent mental health issue(s) and writing a report. Week 10 questions and discussion in this class are devoted to research, i.e. the benefits of research in school nursing practice, applying research in practice, role of the school nurse in a research project, grant writing, and publishing articles and research findings.  Several key measurement criteria from NASN (2011) School Nursing: Scope & Standards of Practice, Standards of Professional Performance, Standard 13, will be used as a basis for providing examples of how candidates gain understanding and use research in practicum experiences: (1) Measurement criteria, “Utilizes the best available evidence, including research findings, to guide practice decisions.” In practicum courses, candidates are expected to take the time to review research related to specific diagnoses and situations that they encounter, and preparing Nursing Care Plans giving specific actions to reduce or eliminate barriers to learning (2) Measurement criteria, “Identifies clinical problems specific to nursing research (client care and nursing practice).” In practicum courses, candidates are encouraged to look for problem areas that could lead a potential research project, and to discuss these with their preceptor or consider a project for themselves in their own school nursing practice. (3) Measurement criteria, “Participates in data collection (surveys, pilot projects, formal studies).” In practicum class discussions, the value of data gathering and surveys are discussed in light of determining nursing care outcomes that keep children in school learning and validate what school nurses do. (4) Measurement criteria, Critically analyzing and interpreting research for application to practice” In each practicum course candidates are required to critique a research article relevant to that particular educational level with application the findings to their own school nursing.

See Sec. 3 (p. 396 and p. 401): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus checklists – E34 and S33 for candidate understanding of the role of the school nurse in research and its importance to school nursing practice.

Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of the research and its importance is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi. Students receive feed-back on every assignment that is listed in the above mentioned assignments.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of research and its importance is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi as well as the Preceptor Checklist (as above in the boxed area). These document is completed by the preceptor at the end of the semester.  Validation on the candidate’s progress is also assessed during the midterm conference and via their journaling in each of the four modules.

Criterion 5: The Candidate understands the role of school nurse with regard to direct client care:

Opportunity to gain understanding for the role of the school nurse as it relates to direct client care is covered in seminar courses and candidates have the opportunity to incorporate this understanding into direct client care in their practicum experiences. Students with acute and chronic health conditions, those with potential health problems, those requiring emergency first aid, and those  being worked up for a 504 or IEP (Individual Healthcare Program), all require hands-on assessment and/or direct client care. Following are some examples of how direct client care is addresses in NURS 184, Introduction of School Nursing (seminar): Primary, secondary, tertiary intervention in school  nurse practice (Wk 4); preschool assessment, medication administration in school, training unlicensed assistive personnel to provide direct client care; (Wk 5); case finding through screening programs (Wk 6); reviewing physical assessment skills (Wk 7);  role of the school nurse in managing students with acute and chronic health conditions (Wk 8);  individual healthcare plans and emergency action plans (Wk 9); the role of the school nurse in care of students with mental health issues, anxiety disorders, and behavioral issues (Wk 11); IDEA and 504 plans, role of the school nurse in assessing students with disabilities (Wk 12); and direct care of the medically fragile (Wk 15). In NURS 185, School Nurse Seminar, examples where direct care include: Assessment and first aid for sports injuries (Wk 5); assessing, counseling, and referring students with potential health issues related to substance abuse, communicable disease, and teen pregnancy (Wks 6-8); adolescents with mental health disorders and behavioral issues, i.e.,  eating disorders, self punitive behavior, etc. (Wks 9-10). In practicum courses, see Preceptor Syllabus, “Suggested Guidelines for Time Spent in Clinical Practice” (p.22). Guidelines specific to direct client care in the chart include time spent as follows:  Students visiting the health office, screening and case finding, administration of medications and carrying out special physical healthcare procedures, managing clients with chronic health conditions and care plans, health assessment and work-ups related to the IEP process and 504 plans. The time that candidates spend with their school nurse preceptor providing hands-on direct client care depends on whether or not the candidate is currently employed as a school nurse. Candidates who are not currently practicing school nursing, must spend 120 hours of their practice experience each semester under the direct supervision of a qualified school nurse preceptor, it is recommended that 45 to 54 of those hours be spent in hands-on client assessment or direct care, which leads in many instances to candidate seeking ways of keeping students in school and/or decreasing or eliminating barriers to learning as needed.  For candidates who are already employed as a school nurse, it is recommended that they spend between 27 and 32 of their practicum hours each semester with a qualified school nurse preceptor in hands-on client assessment or direct care activities away from their work site.

See Sec. 3 (p. 396 and p. 401): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus checklists – E1, E2, E7, E20 - E27, E29 and S1, S10, S15, S20 through S24, S26 - S29 for candidate understanding of the role of the school nurse with regard to direct client care.

Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of the direct client care role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi. Students receive feed-back on every assignment that is listed above.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of the direct client care role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi as well as the Preceptor Checklist (as above in the boxed area). This document is completed by the preceptor at the end of the semester.  Validation on the candidate’s progress is also assessed during the midterm conference and via their journaling every module during the semester. Candidates receive negative or positive feedback on every assignment in each of the four modules.

Criterion 6: The client understands the role of the school nurse in training and supervision of other personnel as applicable:

Candidates are given the opportunity to begin working with a qualified school nurse preceptor in NURS 186, School Nurse Practicum I, early in the fall semester when there is a need to orient and train UAPs (unlicensed assistive personnel) for the purpose of assisting school age children with taking medications, providing first aid, and providing permissible specialized physical healthcare to those students with special needs so they have fewer or no barriers to successful learning. Training and supervision UAPs is also a hot topic for NURS 186 class discussion on Blackboard. This is re-emphasized in NURS 184, Introduction to school nursing (Wks 5 and 15) with regard to first aid, office tasks, medication at school and caring of medically fragile student is covered. Reading for candidates that address training of UAPs are: CSNO (California School Nurses Organization) (2009-2010) “The Green Book: Guidelines and Procedures for Meeting the Specialized Physical Health Care Needs of Pupils” manual, and the course text edited by J. Selekman (2012) School Nursing: A Comprehensive Text, chapter 46 (Staff Management) written by J. Hootman. Through readings, class discussion, and practicum experience with a qualified school nurse preceptor, candidates learn that, while school administrators have responsibility for student safety they cannot legally decide the level of special healthcare needed by a client, this is the responsibility rests with the credentialed school nurse. Candidates are expected to have a clear understanding of the Nurse Practice Act regarding medication administration and physical healthcare procedures that can and cannot be carried out by UAPS. Candidates are also responsible for having understanding for sections of the CA Education Code that apply, as well as possible conflicts in the law. The fact is stressed that school nurses are first registered nurses in California and therefore must abide at all times with the Nurse Practice Act. Working with a qualified school nurse preceptor, candidates have the opportunity to participate in training and monitoring UAPs and learn important details about retraining guidelines, documentation, and what to do in the event that a UAP is not capable of following directions or qualified to carry out a procedure. A significant barrier to learning is decreased or removed when medications are given safely and health care procedures are performed properly. Candidates interested in taking on a special project in a practicum frequently choose to develop a presentation for training UAPs.

See Sec. 3 (p. 395 and p. 400): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus checklists – E7 and S5 for candidate understanding of the school nurse role in supervising and training other personnel as applicable.

Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of the training and supervision of other personnel role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi. Students receive feed-back on every assignment that is listed in the above mentioned assignments.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of the training and supervision role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi as well as the Preceptor Checklist (as above in the boxed area) This document is completed by the preceptor at the end of the semester.  Validation on the candidate’s progress is also assessed during the midterm conference and via their journaling in each of the four modules.

Criterion 7: The candidate understands the role of the school nurse in planning and coordination of healthcare services and program:

Candidates are introduced to role of the school nurse in planning and coordinating school health programs and other types of program early on in core school nurse courses. For example, in NURS 184, Introduction to School Nursing (seminar), candidates are asked to discuss the eight components of a comprehensive school health program, the role of the school nurse in participating in the development of a coordinated school health program,  and government role in programs (Wk 2); the role of the school nurse in disease prevention thorough involvement state immunization programs and Child Health and Disability Prevention programs (Wk 5); the role of the school nurse in planning and conducting state mandated screening programs and other screening programs; the use of the School Health Index to determine school wide program needs (Wks 6,7, 8); understanding health education as a component of a the coordinated school health system, and the need to involve family and community in programs (Wk 10).  Examples of what candidates learn in NURS 185, School Nurse Seminar, at the secondary level: Coordinated school health programs and community involvement (Wk 2); adolescent preventive services, health promotion and disease prevention through coordinated programs (Wk 3); comprehensive health education models, family life education for special learners (Wk 4); role of the school nurse in promoting adolescent fitness,  substance abuse prevention and cessation programs, and programs for pregnant and parenting teens (Wks 5, 6, 8); role of the school nurse in school based clinics and community partnerships (Wk 10).  In practicum courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187), candidates, working with a qualified school nurse preceptor, have the opportunity to gain a global understanding for planning and coordination of healthcare services and programs for students in grades preschool through grade twelve. Candidates spend quality time assisting their preceptor planning and conducting mandated screening programs and other screening programs, i.e., dental screening and oral hygiene education; body mass index, height & weight (indicators of deviation from the norm); and Acanthosis Nigricans (early indicator of diabetes II); etc.  If any abnormality is discovered because of screening programs, that barrier to learning must be reduced or removed.  Students who cannot see or hear well cannot learn.  Candidates also gain insight into health education programs related to wellness for students and staff, i.e., nutrition and fitness, communicable disease prevention, Family Life Education, HIV/AIDS awareness, substance abuse prevention/cessation programs, bullying prevention, school safety, etc.

See Sec. 3 (p. 396 and p. 401): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus checklists – E32 and S36 for candidate understanding of the role of the school nurse in planning and coordination of healthcare services and programs.

See Sec. 3 (p. 396 and p. 401): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus checklists – E32 and S36 for candidate understanding of the role of the school nurse in planning and coordination of healthcare services and programs.

Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of the planning and coordination role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi. Students receive feed-back on every assignment that is listed in the above mentioned assignments.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of the planning and coordination role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi as well as the Preceptor Checklist (as above in the boxed area) This document is completed by the preceptor at the end of the semester.  Validation on the candidate’s progress is also assessed during the midterm conference and via their journaling in each of the four modules.

Criterion 8: The program helps candidates understand and demonstrate a collaborative approach to providing and/or facilitating health-related activities, including acting as a member of a team addressing student achievement:

Collaboration addressed in NURS 184, Introduction to School Nursing (seminar): Evidence of the importance of collaboration is addressed in didactic coursework in weekly questions throughout the semester. Examples of this are: School nurse collaborates with other school professionals in establishing and maintaining coordinated school health programs; the school nurse collaborates and works with the health clerk to maintain a well organized health office and provide appropriate health care to pupils (Wk 3); school nurse as manager of health care programs and leader who collaborates with other disciplines (Wk 4); the school nurse works with other professionals in community health programs to provide services to children and families (Wk 5); the school nurse works with other school site personnel in organizing screening programs at school sites (Wk 6);  the school nurse collaborates with other health care providers and teachers to meet the needs of students with chronic health conditions (Wk 7); the school nurse works with other school professionals and school site personnel in developing procedures to deal with injuries and acute illness (Wk 8); the school nurse works with other school professionals and parents to develop Individual Health Care Plans for students with acute and chronic health care needs (Wk 9); the school nurse works with teachers, parents, and community organizations in health promotion (Wk 10); the school nurse collaborates with teachers and other professional in child abuse reporting (Wk 11); the school nurse collaborates with educators in the 504 process to meet the educational needs of students under IDEA (Wk 12); the school nurse collaborates with other assessment team members and parents in the IEP process (Wk 13); the role of the school nurse in 0-3 programs in works with teachers and parents in assessing health needs and developmental readiness to learn. (Wk 14).

Collaboration addressed in NURS 185, School Nurse Seminar: Collaboration addressed in didactic coursework. Evidence of the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration is addressed in weekly questions throughout the semester. Examples of this are: School nurses as managers in understanding job satisfaction of subordinates (Wk 1); role of the school nurse in working with other school site professionals in coordinated school health programs at the secondary level (Wk 2); school nurse role in supporting student success by working with other school professionals (Wk 3); school nurse working with faculty to provide a worksite health promotion program (Wk 4); the school nurse collaborates with teachers in providing health promotion and instruction to pupils (Wk 5);  the school nurse collaborates with teachers in offering school site tobacco cessation and substance abuse prevention programs (Wk 6); school nurse collaborating with teachers to provide HIV/AIDS education to secondary pupils (Wk 7); the school nurse working with teachers and other professionals to assist pregnant and parenting teens (Wk 8); the school nurse collaborates with school site counselors and health professionals to provide assistance to students with mental health issues (Wk 9); the school nurse collaborates with other school site professionals to develop a crisis intervention team (Wk 10); the school nurse collaborates with other school site professionals and community health professionals to develop a school site emergency plan (Wk 11); school nurse plays a role in establishing and working with other health care professionals in a school based clinic (Wk 12); the school nurse working with other school site professional in grant writing and establishing programs (Wk 13); the school nurse as a team member in suspension and expulsion hearings (Wk 14); the school nurse collaborates with school site administrators in the interview process to recruit qualified health office staff (Wk 15).

Collaboration addressed in NURS 186 (School Nurse Practicum I): The importance of collaboration is clearly demonstrated in the Cross-Cultural Special Ed Case Study assignment. In order to complete this assignment, students must see themselves as members of an assessment team, and as such, must work together with that other team members to resolve problems that may impact the child’s ability to learn. As a member of that team, students must spend time collaborating with the regular classroom teacher; parents/guardians; other members of the assessment team, i.e., school psychologist, RSP (Resource Specialist Program) teacher and/or SDC (Special Day Class) Teacher; health care professionals in the community and with other outside agencies. To give candidates insight into how school site professionals work with community agencies and the court system, students are asked to respond to a journal question (module II) that asks the candidate to discuss the function of a SARB (Student Attendance Review Board), review district polices regarding attendance and referral, and to discuss school nurse interventions and collaboration. Students are strongly encouraged to attend a SARB meeting and to write the experience up in their clinical journal. Candidates must collaborate with the classroom teacher in order to planning, develop and carry out a health teach in the classroom (see NURS 186 Syllabus for assignment details). Another areas that requires a great deal of collaboration for students is in planning and carrying out state mandated screening and in other types of health screening, i.e. dental, at school sites. This requires collaboration with administrators, teachers, and assistance from health clerks and often times parent volunteers. (See N186 Syllabus for assignment details). Further, students are also encouraged to attend various school related meetings that involves collaboration and participation, such as school site committee, faculty, and parent meetings; and when appropriate, a School Board Meeting (An example of this would be in relation to the NURS 186 Policy/Procedure Paper assignment where the student has participated in the development of a new health policy that requires School Board approval.).

Collaboration addressed in NURS 187 (School Nurse Practicum II): Students have numerous opportunities to collaborate with parents, teachers, counselors, administrators, office personnel, unlicensed assistive personnel, health care providers, community agencies, law enforcement representatives and others in meeting the various health related needs of adolescents and in providing health teaching, counseling, and in health promotion. Two assignments exemplify the need for collaboration at the secondary level: a Health Education Curriculum Proposal assignment where students must collaborate i.e., with a P.E. teacher in order to incorporate meaningful health curriculum into what already exists, such as curriculum related to the importance of sun protection in with outdoors sports. The other example, an Aggregate Teaching/Small Group Activity assignment, where candidates must collaborate with teachers, and possibly counselors and/or the school psychologist in order to bring together a small group of students in discuss health issues specific to that group, i.e., pregnant teens. Still other examples would be: working with school site professionals to plan or participate in implementing a coordinated school health program (An example of an Experience School Nurse Project for a candidate with two or more years of school nursing experience.), or collaborating with teachers, administrator, and community agencies in planning and carrying out a health fair at the school site relative to adolescent health issues. Under the supervision of a qualified school nurse preceptor, candidates in NURS 187 have numerous opportunities to collaborate with health professionals in the community in coordinating health care for adolescent students, i.e., pregnancy, suspected sexually transmitted diseases, mental health issues, threatened suicide, crisis on campus, other.  Adequate collaboration leads to a team that is informed and prepared to reduce or eliminate barriers to learning by providing specialized educational and health services.

See Sec. 3 (p. 396 and p. 401): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus checklists – E37 and S38 for candidate ability to understand and demonstrate a collaborative approach to providing and/or facilitating health-related activities, including acting as a member of a team addressing student achievement.

See Sec. 3 (p. 407): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus, Evaluation of Student Professional Dispositions:  Disposition 5, “Candidate demonstrates a collaborative disposition.”

Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of the collaboration role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi. Students receive feed-back on every assignment that is listed in the above mentioned assignments.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of the collaboration role is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi as well as the Preceptor Checklist (as above in the boxed area) This document is completed by the preceptor at the end of the semester.  Validation on the candidate’s progress is also assessed during the midterm conference and via their journaling in each of the four modules.

Criterion 9: The program provides opportunities for the candidate to demonstrate effective communication, using a variety of supporting technology, to a wide range of audiences including students, staff, parents and community:

Writing skills demonstrated in coursework and field experience: In admission application, candidates are required to write a letter expressing their interest in school nursing. This letter gives the program coordinator initial insight into the candidate’s written communication skills. Coursework within the program is also directed toward the importance of effective communication. In seminar courses (NURS 184, Introduction to School Nursing, and NURS 186, School Nurse Seminar): Candidates demonstrate their writing skills in through responding to weekly research questions; participating in discussion following online presentations by fellow classmates; and through their own online Blackboard presentations to classmate, either a word document or PowerPoint presentation. Writing skill is also evaluated through other written assignments, i.e. in NURS 184: a Personal Philosophy of Nursing; a write up on a school board meeting; and an assignment related to cultural differences. In NURS 185, School Nurse Seminar: Candidate writing skills are demonstrated through writing an Interdisciplinary Paper; a paper on adolescent mental health issues; and a Legislative Paper. In practicum courses (NURS 186, Practicum I, and NURS Practicum II): Candidates must keep weekly journals related to clinical experiences, respond to clinical journal questions, complete a Cross Cultural Case Study, and a write up on a health teach. In NURS 187), School Nurse Practicum II: Candidates must keep weekly journaling related to clinical experiences; responses to clinical journal questions write a newsletter; and a write up on either a classroom teach or experience facilitating a discussion for a small group of students related to a health issue(s).  While being supervised by a qualified school nurse preceptor in field experiences, candidates have ample opportunities to use written communication in communicating with parents, referrals to health care providers, notices to teachers, other forms of correspondence, and in documenting on health records (both electronic and hard copy) and other forms of correspondence. It should be noted that candidates are expected to proof read their written work before submitting it. Points are taken off written assignments and papers may be returned if necessary. Evaluation criteria employed by faculty are: Candidates use of APA format with sources cited, clarity, organization, support for ideas expressed, and grammar. This includes all written assignments. Candidates are made aware of the University Policy Statement related to consequences of cheating, plagiarism, and infringement on copyright rules. 

Need for effective verbal/oral communication with regard to a wide range of audiences, including students, staff, parents, other professionals, and community is addressed in coursework: Candidates are required to take COUN 174, Introduction to Counseling, or COUN 200 (3U) prior to entering core school nurses courses. This course gives candidates insight into counseling theories and techniques which they will use in communicating with students and families in their school nursing practice. The role of the school nurse with regard to oral/verbal communication with students, families, staff, and other professionals at school sites and in the community is addressed. In NURS 184, Introduction to School Nursing, candidates are expected to gain insight into the role of the school nurse in health promotion school site staff through in-services such as Blood Borne Pathogens precautions, child abuse reporting, communicable disease control, and other relevant health matters (Wk 10). In NURS 185, School Nurse Seminar, a meaningful assignment that requires a demonstration of verbal communication skills is the Interdisciplinary Interview Paper, which requires candidate assertiveness and good verbal and non-verbal communication skills. In this case, the candidate must interview and shadow three different school site professionals to gain insight into their role on the educational team and at the same time, share about the role of the school nurse. These professionals can be administrators, counselors, school psychologist, teachers, etc. This assignment is insightful for candidates and strengthens their perspective of their own role as a member of the team.

Verbal/oral communication with a wide range of audiences is demonstrated in practicum experiences in  NURS 186 and NURS 187 where candidates have ample opportunity to exercise their verbal/oral/body language communication skills with students, staff families, and other professionals while under the supervision of a qualified school nurse preceptor by counseling and teaching students, staff, and families on related health matters; through health promotion, and working with community agencies and programs in the effort to make the appropriate refer or to connect families with resources. Following are some examples where candidates demonstrate  effectiveness with regard to oral communication: In NURS 186, School Nurse Practicum I, candidates are asked to carry out a Cross-Cultural Special Ed Case Study assignment that requires good verbal, non-verbal skills, and counseling skills, as well as the ability to demonstrate sensitivity to cultural differences, i.e., candidates must be able to communicate effectively through language barriers and with different cultural values and beliefs. As a member of the education team, candidates are also expected to participate in team meetings to provide oral reports, i.e., SST (Student Study Team) meetings or IEP (Individual Education Plan) meetings. This requires the ability to communicate effectively with other professionals in the educational setting and advocate effectively for a child or parent. In practicum courses, candidates demonstrate their oral/verbal communicate effectiveness when presenting a health lesson to students in the classroom at the elementary and secondary levels. School nurse preceptors are expected to sit in on these presentations along with the classroom teacher to offer the candidate feedback on the presentation. Learning outcomes related to lessons taught by candidates must also be clearly demonstrated and candidates are asked to write a personal critique on their own perceived teaching effectiveness. Candidates gain insight into the importance of good verbal and non-verbal communication in working effectively with administrators and other school site personnel. There is a clinical journal question in NURS 186, an ice breaker, that requires students to interview a school site principal regarding his/her perceived view of the role of the school nurse and, at the same time the candidate must share insight about the role of the school nurse with that principal. Candidates are also directed to speak with other school site personnel regarding their perceived role of the school nurse. The candidate’s preceptor observes the candidates verbal and non-verbal communication skills in assisting students who come into the Health Office and communication with faculty and staff. While spending time with a school nurse preceptor, candidates are urged to present, or participate with their school nurse preceptor in presenting at a faculty meeting and take on leadership roles themselves which include presentations at school board meetings, faculty meetings, to a parent groups, or community groups. To encourage candidates in this endeavor, they are allowed to count time used in preparation for the presentation towards practicum hours. A question posed for class discussion in NURS 186, School Nurse Practicum I, asks candidates to discuss the importance of presenting at faculty meeting in the beginning of the school year.
Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of methods of effective communication is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi. Students receive feed-back on every assignment that is listed in the above mentioned assignments.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of methods of effective communication is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi as well as the Preceptor Checklist. This document is completed by the preceptor at the end of the semester.  Validation on the candidate’s progress is also assessed during the midterm conference and via their journaling in each of the four modules.

Criterion 10: Candidate use of various and appropriate methods of communication, including use of technology, in interacting and sharing information with clients and others:

In practicum courses, candidates learn about the different types of communication technology software that can be used with computers at school sites, i.e., software programs for record keeping; data collection, such as student visits to the health office, data on health conditions among students at school, screening results and statistics; data gathering to validate outcome based practice, and use of software such as SAS by education teams for writing up and storing IEP (Individual Education Program) initial and annual reports. Candidates learn the rules regarding sharing confidential information, i.e., health information with teachers and others on a individual “need to know basis”; forbidden use of confidential health lists to teachers and staff; concerns for confidentiality with regard to fax and email communication; using computer programs that block access by others; and location and care of computers to avoid observation or accessed by others. Candidates also recognize that counseling and discussions related to persons and confidential matters must take place away from the main health office. Candidates learn when to and not to share confidential information. In seminar coursework candidates gain insight into the laws (FERPA, Federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy, and HIPAA, Health Information Portability and Accountability Act) regarding confidentiality related to documentation and information that can and cannot be shared with other care providers, teachers, parents, others, without written consent. Candidates gain insight into issues concerning confidentiality as it relates to student health records as part of the student educational record and what should and should not be recorded in a student’s health record, and the importance of appropriate documentation. In practicum experiences (NURS 186 and NURS 187), candidates have the opportunity to put this knowledge into practice and, with guidance from a qualified school nurse preceptor, learn the art of balancing the right of individuals, confidential healthcare, support, and confidentiality in their communications with students, parents, care providers, and  others.  With regard to counseling by candidates: As previously mentioned, candidates are required to take COUN 174 (or 200), Introduction to Counseling, which prepares them to counsel with school age children, adolescents, families, and others. Candidates learn the importance of counseling skills in history taking as it relates to health issues, child abuse issues; and especially at the secondary level, where candidates are in a position to speak with adolescents regarding confidential matters such as pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, possible date rape, gender issues, eating disorders, depression, thoughts of suicide, other.  In reducing or eliminating barriers to learning, many, many educational and health issues have different degrees of confidentiality.  The candidate will be exposed to those laws and Ed Codes via the assignments and requirements as listed above.

See Sec. 3 (p. 396 and p. 401): NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus checklists – E36 and S39 for candidate competency in use of various types of effective communication, including technology, with a wide range of audiences including students, staff, parents, and community.

See Sec. 3 (p. 407):  NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Evaluation of Student Professional Dispositions:  Disposition 5, “Candidate demonstrates a collaborative disposition.”

Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of appropriate methods of communication is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi. Students receive feed-back on every assignment that is listed in the above mentioned assignments.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of appropriate methods of communication accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi as well as the Preceptor Checklist (as above in the boxed area). This document is completed by the preceptor at the end of the semester.  Validation on the candidate’s progress is also assessed during the midterm conference and via their journaling in each of the four modules.

Criterion 11: The  program helps candidate apply his/her entry level knowledge of the standard nursing process of  assessment, diagnosis, outcome identification, planning implementation, and evaluation specifically within the school setting in order to resolve or reduce barriers to student learning:

The Nursing Process addressed in core school nurse courses: Candidates entering the program are already familiar with the nursing process which was introduced to them in their undergraduate programs, however, throughout the core school nurse courses they are re-introduced to it again as it relates to school nursing practice. The required program publication by the National Association of School Nurses, (2007) School Nurse: Scope & Standards of Practice, and author Susan Proctor in the text edited by Janice Selekman, (2012) School Nursing: A Comprehensive Text, both clearly give candidates an understanding of how the nursing process is adapted for use in school nursing practice. Candidates learn that the components of the nursing process relate to a competent level of nursing care in school nursing practice as they do in all other areas of nursing. Though the content and nature of the assessment may vary there remains the same legal responsibility to execute the nursing process in accordance with the standard of care expected of a school nurse in a particular community and in congruence with the state Nurse Practice Act. Candidates in the program learn how to take the components of the nursing process and apply them in problem solving as they relate to the caring for the client or using them in other problem solving situations, i.e., determining need for, development, and evaluation of programs in an effort to reduce barriers to student learning.

Following are some examples of  how the Nursing Process is addressed in weekly questions for candidates in NURS 184, Introduction to School Nursing: (Wk 1) The standards of practice as they relate to client care in the school setting; the Nurse Practice Act as it relates to school nursing practice with common threads of responsibility; (Wk 2) components of the nursing process with application to the candidate’s own school nursing practice; evidence based practice; impact of school nursing practice on school performance; (Wk 3) the importance of identifying outcomes and outcome evaluation in school nursing practice; (Wk 8) use of the Nursing Process in caring for students with chronic health conditions; (Wk 9) Use of the Nursing Process in the developing individual healthcare plans; NANDA nursing diagnosis and use of standardized language in school nursing practice. Examples where the nursing process is addressed in NURS 185, School Nurse Seminar, are as follows: (Wk 2) Standards of practice at the secondary level; (Wk 4) evidence based practice; (Wks 6-10) application of the nursing process as it relates to caring for adolescents with the following health related problems – substance abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy, and various mental health conditions and related issues.

Application of the Nursing Process in Practicum courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187): candidates have the opportunity to put into practice what they have learned about the Nursing Process as it relates to school nursing practice. In NURS 186, an excellent example of an assignment that relates specifically to the Nursing Process is the Cross-Cultural Special Ed Case Study in which candidates must select preschool or elementary school age child who has been identified for possible placement in a special education program and for which the candidate must carry out the steps in the nursing process as the health professional on the SST (Student Study Team) and/or IEP (Individual Education Program) team. Throughout the clinical experiences in both the elementary practicum (NURS 186) and the secondary practicum (NURS 187) candidates have the opportunity to perfect they competency in carrying out the Nursing Process in actual school nursing practice under the supervision of a qualified school nurse preceptor, i.e., in the care of a child or adolescent with a chronic health problem such as asthma, diabetes, with a seizure disorder, blood disorders, or another chronic condition. Candidates also have the opportunity to use the Nursing Process in other problem solving situations in school nursing practice, i.e., participation in program development or in planning an age appropriate health lesson for children in a classroom. In whatever problem solving situation, candidates must demonstrate competency in use of the Nursing Process which includes: Assessment (collect comprehensive data pertinent to the client’s health or the situation); diagnosis (analyze the assessment data to determine the diagnosis or issues), outcome identification (identify expected outcomes for a plan individualized to the client or situation); planning (develop a plan that prescribes strategies and alternatives to attain expected outcomes); implementation (which may include all the following: coordinating care, providing health education or strategies to promote health and safety, consultation, prescriptive authority, procedures, treatments, and therapies in accordance with the law); and evaluation of progress toward attainment of outcomes, thus reducing or eliminating barriers to successful learning.

See Sec. 3, p. 396 and p. 401: NURS 186 and NURS 187 Preceptor Syllabus Checklists – E2 and S1 for candidate competency in applying the Nursing Process within the school setting in order to resolve or reduce barriers to student learning. 

Validation in the Seminar Courses (NURS 184 and NURS 185). Validation of knowledge of the standard nursing process is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi. Students receive feed-back on every assignment that is listed in the above mentioned assignments as well as others in the syllabi.

Validation in the Practicum Courses (NURS 186 and NURS 187). Validation of knowledge of the standard nursing process is accomplished four times per semester based on the scoring system as listed in the syllabi as well as the Preceptor Checklist (as above in the boxed area) This document is completed by the preceptor at the end of the semester.  Validation on the candidate’s progress is also assessed during the midterm conference and via their journaling in each of the four modules.

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