Standard 7-A:  Multiple Subject Reading, Writing, and Related Language Instruction
The preparation program provides substantive, research-based instruction that effectively prepares each candidate to teach reading/language arts. Each candidate will be prepared to deliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction in reading, writing, listening, and speaking aligned to the state-adopted English Language Arts Content Standards and the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). The program provides candidates with systematic, explicit instruction to meet the needs of the full range of learners (including struggling readers, students with special needs, English learners, speakers of non-standard English, and advanced learners) who have varied reading levels and language backgrounds, as referenced in the Reading Instruction Competency Assessment (RICA) Content Specifications and Chapter 7 of the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007).  Language Arts encompasses the domains of: Reading, Writing, Written and Oral English-Language Conventions, and Listening and Speaking.

In LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3, the state-adopted English Language Arts Content Standards, the Reading/Language Arts Frameworks (2007), and the English Language Development are all studied in relation to exemplary teaching practices in kindergarten and the primary grades. Candidates are taught to conduct assessments for young children (age 5 or in kindergarten) to determine developmental levels inreading and writingranging from phonemic awareness, spelling development, and concepts about print and practice effective strategies to scaffold children in literacy learning from emergent stages through independent reading and writing.  In writing, they learn about implementing the Language Experience Approach to model the speech to print concept that is necessary for young children to develop.  They learn to build upon children’s oral language knowledge as a bridge into print awareness and using the child’s ideas that the teacher records as a tool for reading.  Shared writing is used to model writing as a meaning making process and teach conventions of writing, including punctuation and grammar.  Then, children take part in the revision and editing processes.

Interactive writing instruction is taught to have children use their knowledge of phoneme/grapheme correspondence, their emerging knowledge of letter-sound correspondence, and their knowledge of high frequency sight words to take part in writing.  In Interactive writing, children are taught spelling, penmanship, grammar, punctuation, and writing as a process.  As children develop as writers, the candidates learn to implement Guided Writing and Independent Writing experiences and strategies that proficient writers use.  These include, considering the purpose, audience and form for writing the piece, and then scaffolding students through prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing the piece (final product).  Conventions of writing are taught through the writing process.  For example, candidates use children’s writing samples to determine spelling development and ways to meet students’ needs based on evidence in their writing.  They learn, too, that where children are in writing development can be an indicator of where they are in decoding and figuring out unknown words when reading. They use these levels to tailor instruction on the child’s instructional levels. Candidates learn that reading and writing are reciprocal processes that need to be taught together as a means to develop language and a schema for literary genres  [See LEE 177 syllabus.]

Teacher candidates also conduct a case study with a child from grades first through third who is identified as below level in reading.  They conduct assessments in motivation, writing and spelling development, running records, fluency and comprehension.  They analyze the data and create a report and an instructional plan with objectives for reading and writing to meet the needs of their particular case study child. 

Candidates also learn effective strategies for meeting the needs of English Language Learners (ELs) in their class and complete competencies using the Language Experience Approach and incorporate multi-modal pedogogical practices to adopted curriculum.  Candidates also present effective EL strategies during the semester based on course texts and address theory and beliefs for teaching in mixed language classrooms, as well as exploring practical applications such as setting up the classroom for EL learners, choosing appropriate texts and multi-cultural literature, and scaffolding reading and writing experiences by building upon visual arts and oral language structures.

In LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8, the same is done in relation to exemplary teaching practices in grades 4-8. Candidates are taught to administer assessments, prescribe and implement teaching strategies in language development, phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, reading fluency, vocabulary, spelling, writing, and comprehension to meet the needs of the full range of learners (including struggling readers, students with special needs, English learners, speakers of non-standard English, and advanced learners). Candidates are required to integrate these instructional practices into units of instruction related to the study of literature and to teach the units of study in their field placements, which is taken concurrently with the K-3 and 4-8 reading classes. [See LEE 173 syllabus.]

In the Multiple Subject Credential Early Childhood Education Program (ECE) candidates are exposed to the same comprehensive reading coursework described above with enrollment in LEE173 ECE and LEE177 ECE.  Second language learning and the mastery of skills designed specifically to provide English learners access to core curriculum is taught in LEE 173ECE, Teaching Literacy and English Language Development in Grades 4-8.  [See LEE 173ECE syllabus.] First language acquisition, particularly as it leads to early literacy development, is LEE177ECE, Language and Literacy Development and Instruction. [See LEE177ECE syllabus.] Fieldwork is designed at the preschool, kindergarten, primary, and upper elementary levels to provide candidates the opportunity to practice these skills in a supervised setting.  The ECE Program stresses the integration of English Language Development (as both a first and second language) and literacy with all content areas through its project approach.  [See LEE 173ECE and LEE177ECE syllabi.]

The preparation program provides each candidate for a Multiple Subject teaching credential with experience in a classroom where beginning reading is taught. The program places all candidates in field experience sites and student teaching assignments with teachers whose instructional approaches and methods in reading are consistent with the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). 

In LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3, candidates are required to design an instructional plan for a K-3 student based on a battery of assessments that include assessment in English language development, phonemic awareness, phonics, reading fluency and accuracy, decoding skills, oral language, spelling development, and comprehension.  Candidates also practice taking running records with a training video based on Reading Recovery before implementing the running records with students.  This plan is then connected to a classroom where beginning reading is taught.  LEE 177 is taken concurrently with EHD 178, the K-3 field placement.  [See LEE 177 and EHD 178 syllabi.]

Language arts strategies for English Learners (EL) are woven throughout LEE 173 and LEE 177, and candidates are required to design and implement appropriate instruction for EL as a part of each instructional plan. The importance of speaking and listening skills to the development of English vocabulary, comprehension, and writing development is a focus of these classes as well.

In LEE 172: candidates learn about the importance of integrating reading, listening, speaking and writing throughout all phases of the curriculum. The essentials of teaching English Language Development are taught and candidates demonstrate their understanding through observations and reflections.  [See LEE 172 syllabus:  ELD Observation Assignment Guide.]

Candidates learn how to design activities where English learners must not only read and write at a level that supports advanced academic success, but they must also use listening and speaking to gain content information and demonstrate their acquired knowledge.  Emphasis is also placed on transferring L1 comprehension level to L2 for reading and writing, with L2 focused on CALP for school success.

The Multiple Subject credential program prepares candidates to do the following:

 

Reading

Writing

Listening and Speaking

Instructional Planning/ Objectives/Design

  • Strategically select and sequence of curricula to be taught as outlined in the Reading/ Language Arts Framework (2007) with opportunities for application using State Board of Education (SBE)-adopted core instructional materials for both instruction and intervention during fieldwork experience.
  • Understand features of instructional design including what to teach and when to introduce skills and concepts, how to select examples, how to integrate standards, and how to teach for transference and generalization of skills.

Instructional Delivery

Demonstrate knowledge of reading content as described in the RICA Content Specifications and grade level standards as outlined in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). These strands include:

  • word analysis
  • fluency
  • vocabulary, academic language, and background knowledge
  • reading comprehension
  • literary response and analysis

Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in reading as described in the CA Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example:

  • orientation (e.g., engagement, teacher demonstration)
  • presentation (e.g., explicit instruction, modeling, pacing)
  • structured practice (e.g., reinforcement, questioning, feedback)
  • guided practice (e.g., questioning, feedback, corrections, peer-mediated instruction) independent practice and application
  • independent practice (e.g. opportunities for students to show level of mastery)

Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in writing as described in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example:

  • The systematic progression of instruction and application of foundational writing strategies, applications, and conventions
  • Writing strategies that include teaching organization and focus, penmanship (where applicable), research,  technology, evaluation, and revision
  • Writing applications according to genres (grade-level appropriate) and their characteristics
  • Writing conventions appropriate to grade level standards (i.e. sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling)

Demonstrate knowledge of components of effective instructional delivery in listening and speaking as described in the Reading/Language Arts Framework (2007). For example:

  • The systematic progression of instruction and application  to develop listening and speaking strategies and speaking applications that parallel and reinforce instruction in reading and writing
  • Listening and speaking strategies that include listening comprehension, organization and delivery of oral communication, analysis and evaluation of oral and media communication (grade-level appropriate)

 

Assessment

Understand that assessment and instruction are linked within any curriculum.  Therefore, candidates must demonstrate knowledge and ability to use multiple monitoring measures within the three basic types of assessments (as listed below) to determine students’ progress towards state adopted content standards, as referenced in Chapter Six of the Reading Language Arts Framework (2007).  Candidates need to be able to analyze and interpret results to plan effective and differentiated instruction and interventions. Knowledge of the following assessments is crucial to achieving the English Language Arts Content Standards:

  • entry level assessment for instructional planning
  • monitoring student progress
  • post test or summative assessment

Understand that assessment and instruction are linked within any curriculum. Therefore, candidates must demonstrate knowledge and ability to utilize ongoing assessments, both formal and informal to determine students’ progress towards state adopted content standards. Candidates need to be able to analyze and interpret results to plan effective and differentiated instruction and interventions.

 

Reading

Writing

Listening and Speaking

Universal Access/Differentiated Instruction

Demonstrate knowledge of how to organize and manage differentiated reading instruction and interventions to meet the needs of the full range of learners, includingrecognizing that students should be grouped for interventions according to the severity of their difficulties (i.e., benchmark, strategic, and intensive groups)

For example:

  • using all components of California SBE-adopted core instructional materials to make grade-level content accessible to all students
  • using flexible grouping, individualized instruction, and whole-class instruction as needed
  • using selections listed in Recommended Literature, Pre-Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve

In LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8, candidates are required to assess and design an instructional plan for a student in grades 4-8 with a focus on social studies content using assessments and instructional techniques consistent with the Reading/Language Arts Frameworks (2007) for vocabulary, writing, and reading comprehension. This assignment includes practicing and analyzing assessments at a field experience site whose instructional approaches and methods in reading are also consistent with the state adopted Reading/Language Arts Framework. Strategies for teaching vocabulary, writing, and comprehension are demonstrated in class and practiced by candidates in their concurrent field experience placement. Candidates are introduced to a variety of instructional materials for the teaching and practice of reading for a wide-range of purposes. Candidates are required to demonstrate their competence in the appropriate use of instructional materials in the concurrent field experiences taken along with LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 ( EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8) and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3 ( EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3). The students’ development of competency in reading instructioncontinues in EHD 170: Field Study C: Final Student Teaching.  These competencies include a wide variety of exemplary teaching practices.  [See LEE 173 and LEE 177 syllabi.]

Student background knowledge and vocabulary and the use of reading comprehension strategies are developed in their reading classes and practiced in the fieldwork courses that are taken concurrently. LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 is paired with EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8.  LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in Grades K-3 is paired with EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3.  Reading skill development continues in EHD 170: Field Study C: Final Student Teaching.  The theory into practice reading competencies are practiced and achieved across three semesters to ensure that candidates demonstrate the ability to effectively teach strategies for analysis of text structure, summarizing, questioning, and making inferences.

Competencies required for EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8, EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3, and EHD 170: Field Study C: Final Student Teaching ensure that candidates demonstrate the ability to effectively promote the use of oral language throughout the day and across the curriculum.  Special emphasis is made on the importance of oral language in the teaching of reading and language arts, especially with English language learners, in both reading classes and the competencies required in both field experience placements.

Competencies required for EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8, EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3, and EHD 170: Final Student Teaching ensure that candidates demonstrate the ability to effectively provide instruction in writing strategies, writing applications, and written and oral English language conventions. [See EHD 174, EHD 178, and EHD 170 syllabi.]

In both required reading classes, LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3, candidates are provided with assessment strategies and teaching techniques for the teaching of systematic skills in reading fluency, phonemic awareness, explicit phonics, decoding, oral language, spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension and the importance of daily, direct instruction and practice in reading and writing. Candidates are required to demonstrate the ability to effectively teach these skills in the concurrent field experience that is required with each reading class.

The roles of home and community literacy practices and their impact on the student’s attitude toward and development of literacy skills is discussed in both required reading classes ( LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3).  In each reading class, candidates complete a case study of an individual child that requires administering and analyzing a battery of assessments and prescribing instruction based on the assessment results.  In LEE 173, candidates are expected to report on the literacy practices of the home. The use of formal and informal measures of assessment to monitor students’ progress in language development, reading skills, and writing skills is also taught in both reading classes and practiced in the required, concurrent field experiences taken along with the reading classes. The identification of students in need of early intervention strategies and the use of these strategies in the classroom setting are taught in the required reading classes and practiced in the concurrent field placements.

The program’s knowledge base for the candidates preparation to teach reading-language arts is taught in LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3.  The model for the knowledge base of our reading program encompasses five major areas: a) the reading process; b) integrated language arts; c) literature; d) second language acquisition; and e) assessment.  Teacher candidates become familiar with the research and theory in each of these areas and are expected to use this knowledge to make decisions regarding theoretical issues, curriculum development, and classroom applications.  In addition, teacher candidates are required to make practical applications of this knowledge base in K-8 school in each of the field experiences associated with each reading course.  Candidates in both courses must demonstrate knowledge of effective instructional delivery by designing lessons that include orientation, presentation, structured practice, guided practice, and independent practice.

In the text(s) for the two required reading courses ( LEE 173:  Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3 Classrooms) candidates are introduced to several learning theories (behaviorism, constructivism, interactive theory, sociolingustics, reader response, and critical literacy) and how they impact literacy acquisition.  Teacher candidates are taught to recognize students’ use of the four cueing systems:  phonological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic and the interaction of information gained from the text and information brought to the text from the students’ background knowledge. They also gain an understanding of the role of the teacher in supporting students to use word-identification skills and comprehension strategies (Irwin, 1996). Candidates are introduced to teaching strategies to improve student abilities to construct meaning in either an aesthetic or efferent stance.  Candidates are taught assessment strategies for identifying each individual student’s zone of proximal development and designing reading instructional sequences that build on individual skills and understandings of all students including struggling readers, students with special needs, English learners, speakers of non-standard English, and advanced learners.

The integrated language arts component of the reading courses in the Multiple Subject Credential program is consistent with Halliday’s (1980) three goals of language arts education:  learning language, learning about language, and learning through language.   First, our teacher candidates investigate how all types of students learn language and become literate through listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and representing.  They study the emergent conditions and dynamics of reading (Clay, 1991), the importance of talk and drama in learning (Eeds & Wells, 1989; Heath, 1983), and the aesthetic and efferent stances readers take when reading texts (Rosenblatt, 1978).  Teacher candidates further examine not simply the reading and writing processes, but also the systematic progression of instruction and the application of foundational writing strategies.  This includes the teaching of focus and organization of writing, penmanship, research, technology, evaluation and revision (Tomkins, 2006; Graves, 1983).   Professors model and teacher candidates learn to use and teach writing conventions appropriate to grade level standards, including invented spelling (Gentry, 1978), sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, and capitalization.

Second, our teacher candidates learn about oral and written language and how readers and writers interact and transact with language (Langer, 1986).  They examine the genres of literature (Norton, 1991) and various writing applications in narrative and expository texts.  Subsequently, teacher candidates learn how to use that analysis to produce their own texts in writing.   For example, the professor models the process the process of identifying compare/contrast text structure in texts, writing notes in the form of a Venn diagram, and models writing up those notes in combination with other notes in a compare/contrast format.  Teacher candidates demonstrate their knowledge of effective instructional delivery of writing by practicing what the professor models in the university classroom and then teaches that systematic progression from modeling, guided practice, and student practice in an elementary school classroom as a part of their competencies for LEE173.  They are introduced to research teaching strategies related to vocabulary, grammar, and usage (Nagy, 1988; Weaver, 1996). This includes the study of morphology and phonology.

Third, our teacher candidates study how all students including struggling readers, students with special needs, English learners, speakers of non-standard English, and advanced learners learn through language and become literate as they read and respond to core literature selections, participate in reading and writing workshop (Atwell, 1987), participate in theme cycles and other thematic units (Pappas, Kiefer & Levstik, 1990), and create portfolios to document their learning processes and products (Flood & Lapp, 1989; Graves & Sunstein, 1992). 

Special attention is given to adapting this information to meet the needs of the linguistically and culturally diverse children and adolescents in our service area.  Our teacher candidates learn this content by reading, classroom discussion, viewing of video demonstrating exemplary teaching practices, and the teaching of lessons in diverse classrooms under the supervision of School Site Partners, Master Teachers, and university supervisors.

In addition, our teacher candidates learn how to involve students, including emergent readers and adolescents, in reading literature and engage them in responding to literature.  They review the transactive model of reading (Rosenblatt, 1978), compare aesthetic and efferent reading, and learn strategies to assist students as they interpret literature, including grand conversations (Eeds & Wells, 1989).  Our teacher candidates learn how to implement a literature-based reading program using reading workshop and core literature approaches, read accounts in professional journals of how classroom teachers have implemented these approaches in their classrooms, and experiment with these approaches in their field placements and student teaching.  Concept of story (Applebee, 1978) and visual media is emphasized, and teacher candidates learn ways to help children and adolescents examine the structure of literature, including literary elements, literary opposites, and dramatic roles (Temple, 1991).

The relationship between first and second language acquisition is stressed in LEE 173:  Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8, and LEE 177:  Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3.  Both courses focus on the role of the first language in second language development and the common underlying proficiency model of bilingual proficiency (Cummins, 1981; McLaughlin, 1987). Our reading coursework provides multiple opportunities for candidates to acquire teaching strategies to meet the needs of the culturally and linguistically diverse student population in the area our institution serves, Fresno, and the Central Valley. Techniques for teaching vocabulary and comprehension based on California English Language Development (ELD) Standards are mostly addressed in LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3, and candidates in both reading classes are taught ways to adapt instruction for English learners and speakers of non-standard English. Candidates in LEE 173:  Teaching Reading and Social Studies for Grades 4-8 are expected to provide lesson adaptations to meet the needs of diverse students in the content area literacy unit they write.

Candidates in both courses ( LEE 173: Teaching Reading and the Arts for grades K-3, and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and Social Studies for Grades 4-8) are taught that assessment must: (a) reflect the complex nature of literacy; (b) be used to inform instruction; and (c) serve all ranges of students including struggling readers, students with special needs, English learners, speakers of non-standard English, and advanced learners by helping them to become reflective self-assessors. These beliefs are grounded in an understanding of the constructive nature of the reading process and the recognition that the most valid assessments are those that are purposeful, authentic, and on-going (California State Department of Education, 2007; Lipson & Wixson, 1997). Among the topics which we consider are: standardized and norm-referenced tests, criterion-referenced measures, informal measures, portfolio assessment, and performance assessment.

Consequently, LEE 173:  Teaching Reading and Social Studies for Grades 4-8, and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in Grades K-3, strive to help the teacher candidates enrolled in the Multiple Subject program to develop the ability to identify, develop, administer, interpret, and critique a variety of formal and informal assessment instruments.  Candidates are also exposed to entry level, summative, and formative assessments.  Candidates plan and implement instruction that meets the specific needs of all students in individual, small group, and whole class settings, identify factors contributing to difficulties in reading performance, and adapt assessment and instructional materials and procedures to meet the needs of all ranges of students including struggling readers, students with special needs, English learners, speakers of non-standard English, and advanced learners.

References used in the above information are as follows:

Akhavan, N. (2007).  Accelerated vocabulary instruction:  Strategies for closing the achievement gap for all students.  New York, NY: Scholastic.

Atwell, N.  (1987).  In the middle: Writing and reading with adolescents.  Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2008).  Words their way:  Word Study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Prentice-Hall. California State Department of Education. (2007). Reading and language arts curriculum f ramework K-12.  Sacramento: CA.

Clay, M. M.  (1991).  Becoming literate:  The construction of inner control.  Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.

Clay, M. M. (2000).  Concepts About Print:  What have children learned about the way we print language?  Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.

Cummins, J.  (1981).  The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students.  In Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework  (pp. 3-49). Sacramento, CA:  California Department of Education.

Eeds, M., & Wells, D.  (1989).  Grand conversations: An exploration of meaning construction in literature study groups. Research in the Teaching of English, 23, 4-2.

Flood, J. & Lapp, D. (1989).  Reporting reading progress: A comparison portfolio for parents.  The Reading Teacher, 42, 508-14.

Garan, E. (2007).  Smart Answers to Tough Questions:  What to say when you’re asked about fluency, phonics, grammar, vocabulary, SSR and more.  New York, NY:  Scholastic.

Gentry, J. R. (1978).  Early spelling strategies.  Elementary School Journal, 79, 88-9.

Graves, D. H., & Sunstein, B. S. (1992).  (Eds.) Portfolio portraits.  Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Halliday,  M. A. K. (1980). Three aspects of children's language development: Learning language, learning through language, learning about language.  In Y. M. Goodman, M. M. Haussler, & D. S. Strickland (Eds .) , Oral and written language development research: Impact on the schools, 7-19.

Heath, S. B.  (1983).  Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Irwin, J.W.  (1991).  Teaching reading comprehension processes (2nd ed.)  Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Langer, J. A.  (1986).  Children's reading and writing: Structures and strategies.  Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Lipson, M.Y. & Wixson, K.K.  (1997).  Assessment and instruction of reading and writing disability:  An interactive approach (2nd ed.).  New York:  Longman.

McGee, L.M., & Richgels, D.J.  (1985).  Teaching expository text structure to elementary students.  The Reading Teacher, 38, 739-748.

McLaughlin, B.  (1987). Theories of second language learning.  London:  Edward Arnold.

Nagy,W. E.  (1988).  Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension.  Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

National Reading Panel. (2000).  Teaching children to read summary report.  US Dept. of Education.

Norton, D.  (1991).  Through the eyes of a child: An introduction to children's literature (3rd ed.).New York, NY: Macmillan.

Pappas, C. C., Kiefer, B.Z.,  & Levstik, L. S.  (1990).  An integrated language perspective in the elementary school: Theory into action.  New York, NY: Longman.

Rosenblatt, L.  (1978).  The reader, the text, the poem:  The transactional theory of the literary work.  Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Temple, C. (1991).  Seven readings of a folk tale:  Literary theory in the classroom.  The New Advocate, 4, 25-35.

Tompkins, G. E. (2007).  Literacy for the 21st Century.  Pearson:  NJ:  Upper Saddle River.

Weaver, C.  (1996).  Teaching grammar in context.  Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.

Yatvin, J. (2007)  English-only teachers in mixed-language classrooms.  New York, NY:  Heinneman.

LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3 were also designed to prepare teacher candidates to pass the RICA. The two courses were re-constructed with a focus on the five domains tested on the revised RICA (2007) edition.  Teacher candidates are prepared in the strands of word analysis, fluency, vocabulary, academic language, background knowledge, reading comprehension, and literary response and analysis.  In addition to the two reading courses with concurrent field experiences that require candidates to practice and demonstrate proficiency in assessing and teaching students K-8, a series of RICA Preparation classes are offered throughout the year. These courses are designed to support credential candidates in writing essays and answering multiple-choice questions that demonstrate their understanding of the teaching of elementary school students in reading and language arts.

All teacher candidates experience at least one semester of field experience or student teaching in a linguistically and/or culturally diverse classroom where beginning reading is taught.  Teacher candidates in Phase 1 of the program take LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom, where they begin to recognize the interplay of culture with teaching and learning at the elementary school level.  LEE 172 includes the teaching of language acquisition theory and instructional strategies for English learners [See LEE 172 syllabus.]

Teacher candidates learn to promote student success, in L2 for the achievement of state-adopted content and language-development standards.  At the same time that teacher candidates are taking LEE 172, they are concurrently taking LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8, and they are practicing the skills in EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8.  Practice of skills learned in Phase 1 continues in Phase 2, where teacher candidates take LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3 and EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3, and in Phase 3, where students take EHD 170: Final Student Teaching.

All teacher candidates experience at least one semester of field experience or student teaching in a linguistically and/or culturally diverse classroom where beginning reading is taught.  Teacher candidates in Phase 1 of the program take LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom, where they begin to recognize the interplay of culture with teaching and learning at the elementary school level.  LEE 172 includes the teaching of language acquisition theory and instructional strategies for English learners.  Teacher candidates learn to promote student success, in L2 for the achievement of state-adopted content and language-development standards.  At the same time that teacher candidates are taking LEE 172, they are concurrently taking LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8, and they are practicing the skills in EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8.  Practice of skills learned in Phase 1 continues in Phase 2, where teacher candidates take LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3 and EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3, and in Phase 3, where students take EHD 170: Final Student Teaching.

California State University, Fresno works closely with surrounding districts to identify School Site Partners and Master Teachers who demonstrate effective teaching strategies in the classroom. School Site Partners, Master Teachers, university supervisors, and methodology professors are included in training days offered at the university. Reading methods professors provide regular seminars focusing on exemplary methods for teaching reading and language arts to which Master Teachers and supervisors are invited.  For School Site Partners, Master Teachers, and university supervisors who are unable to attend these seminars, videotapes of the sessions are available. Reading professors and Master Teachers provide modeling of effective teaching strategies in the two required reading classes. University supervisors and Master Teachers work together to ensure that all credential candidates are making progress in demonstrating effective practices in teaching reading and language arts skills and strategies. 

Intern Program Delivery Model:

The intern preservice component includes introductory preparation relative to Standard 7: Preparation to Teach Reading-Language Arts: Multiple Subject Reading, Writing, and Related Language Instruction.

Teacher candidates in the Multiple Subject program must successfully complete LEE 173 and LEE 177 prior to beginning the Internship Program.

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