Standard 5: Professional Perspectives Toward Student Learning and the Teaching Profession
Each Multiple Subject credential candidate at Fresno State begins to develop a professional perspective on teaching that includes an ethical commitment to teach every student effectively and to develop as a professional educator that is fostered and expanded with each and every course in the sequence of required courses.  During interrelated coursework and fieldwork taken concurrently, candidates learn how social, emotional, cognitive, and pedagogical factors impact student learning outcomes and how a teacher’s beliefs, expectations, and behaviors strongly affect learning on the part of student groups and individuals.

Each candidate accepts the responsibility of a teacher to provide equitable access for all students to core academic content and is taught methods to promote student academic progress equitably and conscientiously and to foster the intellectual, social and personal development of all students.  Individually and collaboratively with colleagues, candidates examine and reflect on their teaching practices and professional behaviors in relation to principles of classroom equity and the professional responsibilities of teachers. At the KSOEHD Convocation, credential candidates are recognized for their efforts and commitment to the children of California.  At this ceremony, Fresno State candidates take an oath of affirmation that verbally commits them to high levels of commitment and academic standards in the profession.

The EHD fieldwork orientation meetings provide opportunities for the teacher candidates to discuss ethics and professionalism in teaching. Educational scenarios are used as a basis for discussion.  The EHD 174: Field Study A orientation concludes with the students reciting the Educators Affirmation.

In addition to the program components described below being facilitated in ECE-equivalent coursework and fieldwork, the Multiple Subject Credential Early Childhood Education Program (ECE) has implemented a very strong professional ethics component to its preparation program.  Since 2000 ECE candidates have attended four Future Teacher Forums each semester where issues of professional ethics are explored with ECE faculty through specially written scenarios and historical and contemporary role models.  ECE coursework also provides opportunities for discussion.  During these discussions reference is frequently made to the Code of Ethics of the National Association of the Education of Young Children as is reference to course related research and experiences.  ECE candidates’ levels of ethical decision making skills are pre-assessed and post-assessed upon admission and graduation to/from the ECE program.  Data indicate growth in ECE candidates’ skills in approaching matters of professional ethics.

Fieldwork courses EHD 174 and EHD 178 help candidates to learn how to develop safe, inclusive positive learning environments that promote respect and value difference.  Students learn how to construct effective learning environments.  Engaging students through positive communication and working with small groups of students is emphasized in an EHD 174 classroom management seminar.  One presenter has an extensive background in mediation and conflict resolution with young students.  Classroom management is integrated into an EHD 178 classroom management seminar.  Small group activities include role play, simulations and opportunities for teacher candidates to brainstorm and practice strategies that they can use to engage small groups of students as well as whole class instruction. Candidates are expected to implement these strategies in their field placements.  The teacher candidate effectiveness is evaluated through observations, mid semester and final assessment goal setting meetings, and Teacher Performance Assessments. (See Multiple Subject Handbook.) 

The preparation program ensures that each candidate explores a variety of perspectives and begins to develop a professional perspective on teaching that includes an ethical commitment to teach every student effectively and to develop as a professional educator. Candidates study different perspectives on teaching and learning, and explore alternative concepts of education.

Throughout the foundational courses at Fresno State ( CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment and LEE l72: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom), Multiple Subject credential candidates are prepared to understand their responsibility to provide equitable access to the core curriculum and to conscientiously foster the academic, linguistic, cognitive, and social development of all their students. By emphasizing dialogue, discussion, and congeniality in our classes, we promote reflective practice, collegiality, and a commitment to continuing professional growth and development. [See CI 171 syllabus:  Final Exam Assignment.][See LEE 172 syllabus:  Reflection Assignments.]

The themes of active inquiry, equity, access, and concern for individual development are reflected in every course with instruction in the content-specific coursework providing demonstrations, discussions, and simulations of strategies for enriching the educational achievement, skill proficiency, and confidence of all students. Although alternative approaches to education are explored in the foundational coursework, the content-specific pedagogy classes tend to focus more on active-learning strategies and methods for increasing access to the core curriculum for English language learners as mandated by the state content standards and frameworks.  During EHD 170: Field Study C, candidates are required to attend the Character and Civic Education conference where they learn ethical and professional responsibilities.

Coaching and reflection on their teaching practices and professional behaviors (in relation to principles of equity and the professional responsibilities of teachers) play a key role in helping teacher candidates to apply prior knowledge in all three field placements.

Phase 1 teacher candidates are placed in a 4th -6th grade classroom for the semester.   The candidates work with individual students and complete surveys and assessments to help them better understand the students and their needs. They write reflections on this information (turned in to their supervisors) and apply what they have learned as they tutor these students throughout the semester. The university supervisors also help to guide the teacher candidates in using the results of their pre assessment to collaboratively plan and implement a series of reading lessons using social studies content. After planning and implementing these lessons, teacher candidates are required to give a post assessment and reflect on the results and the effectiveness of the lessons that they taught. The university supervisor is on site once a week to observe, guide, and coach the students through this process.

Phase 2 teacher candidates are placed in a K-1 st grade classroom for the semester. Teacher candidates have a series of competencies that reflect content they have learned in their courses [ See Field Placement Handbook.] These competencies must be implemented in their field placement under the guidance of their master teacher and university supervisor. After implementing lesson plans, the teacher candidates are required to reflect on the strengths and state goals for future lessons.  The teacher candidates are also required to complete a weekly reflection that is read and commented on by their university supervisor. The university supervisor is on site every other week giving informal feedback, observing lessons and guiding candidates in reflecting on their strengths and goals for future lessons. In addition to other daily activities, the teacher candidates must teach a minimum of six formal lessons and the university supervisor must observe and help the students reflect (coach) the teacher candidates (minimum of two formal lessons). The Site Visitation Project (Teacher Performance Assessment) is an additional requirement that requires a formal lesson plan to be submitted to the university supervisor. The lesson plan is discussed in a preconference, taught by the teacher candidate, observed by the university supervisor, a post conference is held with the university supervisor, teacher candidate’s lesson is scored on a rubric, and the teacher candidate writes a formal reflection.

Phase 3, Final Student Teachers start out planning and teaching one subject and gradually assume responsibility for the entire day.  The first Teacher Performance Assessment is the Teaching Sample Project (See FAST Handbook). This requires the teacher candidate to examine the context of the classroom and use this information in planning and implementing a unit of study. Content standards are selected and a pretest designed and implemented.  Under the guidance of the university supervisor and master teacher the teacher candidate reflects on these results and uses the information they have about the context of the classroom to plan and teach the unit. The teacher candidate gives a post assessment, analyzes results, and describes next steps for professional growth. The written form of the Teaching Sample Project is scored by a team of calibrated scorers; however, the university supervisor has a key role in guiding the teacher candidates in writing, implementing, and reflecting on this project. Small group discussions and individual feedback sessions are held on a regular basis. 

The Holistic Proficiency Project is the second Teacher Performance Assessment in final student teaching. This project requires the teacher candidates to plan and implement formal lessons in the areas of mathematics, science, social studies, and two other areas. These lessons must meet all criteria described on the rubric. [ See FAST Handbook.]  The university supervisor must review the lesson plans, observe the implementation of at least five of these lessons and meet with the teacher candidate to reflect on their results. The teacher candidate must show evidence of competence as outline in the FAST Handbook including lesson reflections. It is the university supervisor’s responsibility to support and coach the teacher candidate throughout this process. Toward the end of the semester the supervisor meets with each teacher candidate to review evidence, reflect on strengths and plan for future professional development.

The program provides opportunities for candidates to examine research on relationships between (a) the background characteristics of students and inequities in academic outcomes of schooling in the United States, and (b) teacher expectations and student achievement. The program educates candidates on laws pertaining to health, safety, protection, access and educational equity for all students.

Candidates are acquainted with the research literature on the relationship between the background characteristics of students and inequities in academic outcomes of schooling in the United States through readings and discussion in LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom. [See LEE 172 syllabus:  Primary Learning Outcomes.]  Candidates become aware of their own perspective through various assignments including weekly Making Connections and a cultural awareness project. [See LEE 172 syllabus:  Cultural Awareness Project.]

The pedagogical practices we teach are based on sound theory and research.  The work of Eugene Garcia (2005), Stephen Krashen, Jim Cummins (1999), John Ogbu (1987) are just a few of the researchers that ground our practice. This research along with others reinforces our belief that culture and language are closely linked.  Candidates also complete a Professional and Ethical Obligations assignment that involves reflecting on the theory of the course and how it applies to their teaching.

The impact of poverty and English proficiency on appropriate approaches to beginning reading instruction is explored in LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in Grades K-3. Because of the high levels of poverty and second language students in our service area, a concerted emphasis is put on the importance of teacher expectations in establishing and maintaining academic proficiency.  Specifically Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) strategies are demonstrated in all content-specific pedagogy courses. The required reading classes ( LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in Grades K-3) require candidates to include adaptations for English language learners in all lesson and unit plans, include competencies for teaching EL students in their field placement, and the professors teaching those classes do frequent demonstrations of English Language Development strategies for increasing vocabulary and comprehension in students learning English as a second language and incorporate video demonstrations of teaching EL students through shared reading experiences.  [See LEE 173 and LEE 177 syllabi.]

Background characteristics of students and inequities in academic outcomes of schooling in the United States are examined in LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom.  The specific primary learning outcomes in LEE 172 are designed to help further the candidates’ professional knowledge in the foundations of education and their repertoire of cognitive and intercultural approaches related to instructing English Learners.  Research by Jim Cummins (1984, 1986) and Thomas and Collier (1995) looks at the interdependence of first and second language acquisition in a socio-cultural context. The Collier and Thomas prism describes the four major components that drive language acquisition in a school setting: socio-cultural, linguistic, academic, and cognitive processes. The prism represents the interdependent nature of the three processes: linguistic, academic, and cognitive. These three processes surround the socio-cultural processes, which is placed at the center.  This model is the foundation for second language acquisition, one in which we base the practices we teach.  [See LEE 172 syllabus:  Primary Learning Outcomes.]

Teacher expectations and student achievement are examined in both CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment and LEE l72: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom. [See LEE 172 syllabus.]

During interrelated coursework and fieldwork, candidates learn how social, emotional, cognitive, cultural, and pedagogical factors impact student learning outcomes, and how a teacher’s beliefs, expectations, and behaviors strongly affect learning on the part of student groups and individuals.

Initially, candidates learn about professional responsibilities of teachers related to the personal, social, and emotional development of children and youth in CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment.  Candidates learn about the theory in readings and discussions.  They transfer their theory into practice during their case study assignment. [See CI 171 syllabus:  Case Study Assignment.]  Candidates continue to acquire and reinforce their understanding of their professional responsibilities to promote the personal, social, emotional, and academic development of all students through each course in the Multiple Subject Credential program.  They continue to practice their unique role in advancing each student’s academic achievements in their fieldwork experiences.  

The program provides opportunities for each candidate to promote student academic progress equitably and conscientiously, and fosters the intellectual, social, and personal development of all children and adolescents, while emphasizing the teacher’s unique role in advancing each student’s academic achievements and advocating for students.  Through formal instruction, coaching, and supervision candidates assume the responsibility to maximize each learner’s achievements by building on students’ prior instruction and experience. 

Candidates first experience the literature on background knowledge, experience, and interest and how these factors impact learning in CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment.  In CI 171, candidates complete a case study report to demonstrate their understanding of gathering student specific information to assess prior knowledge and interests (e.g. multiple intelligences, learning styles, etc.). [See CI 171 syllabus:  Case Study Assignment.]  Candidates also develop a unit design that includes analyzing a student pre-assessment and determining the implications for planning.   The candidates then develop a unit through a series of lessons. [See CI 171 syllabus:  Design for Instruction Assignment.]

In LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts in the Classroom, candidates learn how to assess prior knowledge, experiences, abilities, and interests as it relates to the students’ unique cultural perspective by completing a cultural awareness project.  [See LEE 172 syllabus:  Cultural Awareness Project.]

The importance of assessing and building on the learner’s background knowledge is stressed in all the content-specific pedagogy coursework and practiced in the candidates’ field placements through the completion of competencies ( EHD 174: Field Study A: Grades 4-8, EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3, and EHD 170: Field Study C: Final Student Teaching). (See Multiple Subject Handbook.)  A wide variety of strategies for assessing background knowledge, both formally and informally, are presented in the pedagogy classes (KWL Charts, interviews, pre-lesson discussion, advanced organizers, brainstorming) and practiced by the candidates in their field placements.

The reading classes ( LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 andLEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in Grades K-3) provide instruction in the form of demonstration lessons, simulations, and classroom video examples to expose candidates to many different approaches to building background knowledge as pre-reading and pre-writing activities.  [See LEE 173 and LEE 177 syllabi.]  Candidates are taught literacy strategies in the reading courses and required to practice and gradually demonstrate proficiency in a wide variety of strategies designed to build on student’s background knowledge and ensure proficiency in reading and writing. The same theory-demonstration-practice approach is used in all the content-specific pedagogy courses.

The program provides opportunities for candidates to learn the importance of challenging students to set and meet high academic expectations for themselves. They learn to use multiple sources of information, including qualitative and quantitative data, to assess students’ existing knowledge and abilities, and to establish ambitious learning goals for students.

Basic principles of assessment and the interpretation of standardized testing are taught in CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment. [See CI 171 syllabus: Design for Instruction Assignment.]  In CI 176: Mathematics Instruction and Applied Assessment, candidates learn how to analyze student assessments to make instructional decisions. [See CI 176 syllabus: Mini Unit Assignment.] Content-specific assessments are taught and practiced in all the content-specific pedagogy classes  ( LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8; CI 175: Science Instruction and Applied Technology; CI 176:  Mathematics Instruction and Applied Assessment; LEE 177:  Teaching Reading and the Arts in Grades K-3).

A variety of approaches are included in the assessments taught and practiced, including interviews, performance sampling, structured observations, anecdotal records, running records, informal reading inventories, and the building and maintaining of portfolios.  As a part of the instruction in lesson planning in CI 171:  Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment, candidates are taught the use of a variety of sampling techniques (KWL Charts, Brainstorming, Pre-Questioning) to determine students’ readiness for instruction and background knowledge. Portfolio assessment is examined as an assessment, motivational, and goal-setting tool. [See CI 171 syllabus:  Design for Instruction Assignment.]

In SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management, candidates learn how to customize instruction for the varying levels of students in their classroom.  Candidates write and implement lessons that utilize student assessments through learning differences and multiple intelligences, use data to design instruction and to inform them as to the efficacy of other plans such as a behavior plan. This focus requires candidates to learn multiple sources and formats of assessment. [See SPED 179 syllabus.]

During the required reading courses ( LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in Grades K-3), techniques such as individual conferencing, three-way conferencing, and reading and writing workshops are explored as ways to help students learn to set goals. Candidates are required to demonstrate their proficiency in the use of multiple measures of assessment as a part of their final student teaching assignments. [See EHD 170 syllabus.]

Individually and collaboratively with colleagues, candidates examine and reflect on their teaching practices and professional behaviors in relation to principles of classroom equity and the professional responsibilities of teachers.   Candidates collaborate with colleagues to design and deliver effective, coordinated instruction.

Active learning strategies are employed in most of the pedagogy classes in the Multiple Subject Credential program. Discussion and dialogue, group activities, cooperative learning, and collaborative projects give our candidates extensive experience in collaborative, collegial work. Most courses require that candidates collaborate on significant projects. Collaborative Literacy Units are created by groups of teacher candidates in both reading classes. These collaborative projects require that candidates design individual lesson plans but collaborate on the sequencing of lessons and the presentation of the unit activities to students.  In LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 teacher candidates plan, prepare a “mini” unit of study in Language Arts and Social Studies that is taught in EHD 174. (See LEE 173 syllabus and Multiple Subject Handbook.)

In SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management, candidates learn about and practice collaborative, collegial planning to provide multiple levels of support for students with special needs.  Candidates demonstrate their understanding of this collaboration through assignments such as their Special Education Teacher or Parent Interview, their Individualized Education Plan (IEP) Reflection Paper, and through modeling collaborative skills during a group presentation.  [See SPED 179 syllabus.]

During EHD 170: Field Study C Final Student Teaching, teacher candidates participate in collaborative, professional work environments to design and deliver effective coordinated instruction.  The teacher candidates’ ability to successfully collaborate in the school site environment is documented in the competencies that are required during their final student teaching. 

Intern Program Delivery Model:

The intern preservice component (providing skills and knowledge required prior to entering the classroom as the teacher of record) includes introductory preparation relative to Standard 5: Professional Perspectives toward Student Learning and the Teaching Profession.

Each teacher intern is interviewed prior to acceptance to the program. At this time their understanding of the teaching and learning process is assessed.

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