Standard 3: Foundational Educational Ideas and Research

Multiple Subject credential candidates at California State University, Fresno learn major concepts, principles, theories and research related to child and adolescent development; human learning in CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment [See CI 171 syllabus:  Case Study Assignment.]; and the social, cultural and historical foundations of education in LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom. [See LEE 172 syllabus.] 

Each candidate examines in courses, seminars and field placements how selected concepts and principles are represented in contemporary educational policies and practices in California schools through exploration of content-specific standards and frameworks related to the disciplines they will be teaching: mathematics, science, reading/language arts, history/social science, physical education, visual and performing arts, and health.   Candidates define and develop their professional practice by drawing on their understanding of educational foundations and their contemporary applications as they write and teach lesson and unit plans in the content-specific coursework and required field placements. [See CI 171 syllabus:  Design for Instruction Assignment.]

Through planned prerequisites and/or professional preparation, candidates learn major concepts, principles, theories and research related to: (a) child and adolescent development (cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and physical); (b) human learning; and (c) social, cultural, philosophical, and historical foundations of education.

Candidates for the Multiple Subject credential at Fresno State take a required course, CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment, in which they explore the major concepts, theories, and research relate to cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and physical development of students in the kindergarten through eighth grade age range.  Through readings, discussion, video, case study analysis and a final reflection paper in the course, candidates examine attributes of students at varying levels of development. [See CI 171 syllabus.]  In the content-specific coursework related to the teaching of reading, science, mathematics, social science, and integrated curriculum, candidates are taught to plan and implement age and developmentally appropriate lessons that support the achievement of academic proficiency in all students. Through the concurrent field experiences ( EHD 174, 178, & 170) taken with the content-specific pedagogy classes, candidates are required to demonstrate their abilities to implement effective teaching based on their knowledge of content standards and human development.

Candidates for the Multiple Subject credential learn major concepts, principles and research related to learning and motivation theory in the required class CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment. Through the reading and discussion of literature related to theories of learning and motivation, candidates explore the basic principles of teaching effective lessons. [See CI 171 syllabus.]

In the content-specific pedagogy classes required of all multiple subject credential candidates ( CI 176: Mathematics Instruction and Applied Assessment; CI 175: Science Instruction and Applied Technology; LEE 173: Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8; and LEE 177: Teaching Reading and the Arts in Grades K-3) candidates learn appropriate teaching strategies for various ages and stages of human development through classroom demonstrations, simulation activities, viewing and reflecting upon video presentations of teachers implementing literacy strategies with their students, and the designing of lessons and units of study that integrate the disciplines in the classroom.

Structured observation assignments in public school classrooms begin during EHD 50: Introduction to Teaching, in the undergraduate sequence which helps prepare candidates to recognize the need to vary instruction for different students based on their ages and backgrounds of experience.  Field placements ( EHD 174 & 178) scheduled concurrently with the pedagogy coursework require candidates to plan and effectively teach lessons in a wide variety of disciplines, to students in at least two different grade and socioeconomic levels. Instruction in classroom management and motivational strategies is provided to the candidates in CI 171: Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design and Assessment, SPED 179: Differentiated Instruction [See SPED 179 syllabus.] and Classroom Management and in Fieldwork Seminars ( EHD 174, and EHD 178).  [See EHD 174 and EHD 178 syllabi.]

The program provides opportunities for candidates to examine how selected concepts and principles are represented in contemporary educational policies and practices in California schools.

Candidates are required to take LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom in which they explore the major concepts and principles regarding the historical and contemporary purposes, roles and functions of education in American society. [See LEE 172 syllabus.]

Throughout the content-specific coursework, candidates are required to draw upon this foundational knowledge as they are taught to analyze available curriculum materials. They must select or adapt materials for appropriate lessons, assess student learning to group for instruction and re-teaching, if necessary. They also design sequences of instruction to gradually build skills, English proficiency and confidence in students.

As a part of the competency requirements for field placements ( EHD 174:  Field Study A; EHD 178: Field Study B, and EHD 170: Final Student Teaching) candidates are required to demonstrate their ability to teach effective lessons.   [See EHD 174, EHD 178, and EHD 170 syllabi.]  In order to do this they must make adaptations to ensure the success of all students, and reflect on their own teaching behaviors and document student growth. The reflections required after observations and teaching in the field placements address many of the issues of access to core curriculum, fair discipline policies, and equity in the classroom.   These topics are often the focus for student teaching seminars. The combination of journaling (private written conversations with their supervisors) and more public discussion at student teaching seminars provide opportunities to express concerns and also to hear and process the opinions and approaches of others. The performance assessment, Teaching Sample Project, is a culminating assignment to require teacher candidates to assess, teach, evaluate and reflect.  (See FAST Manual.)

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