Standard 4: Bilingual Methodology

The bilingual teacher preparation program prepares bilingual candidates to understand the interrelatedness among the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and to know language forms and functions. The program also prepares candidates to plan, develop, implement and assess standards-aligned content instruction in the primary and target language. Candidates are prepared to employ a variety of instructional and assessment strategies, appropriate to student language proficiency levels, that foster higher-order thinking skills. The program ensures that bilingual candidates have knowledge of bilingual instructional models, instructional strategies and materials to appropriately apply them to their instructional and assessment practices. In addition, programs develop bilingual candidates’ understanding of knowledge of intercultural communication and interaction that is linguistically and culturally responsive. The bilingual teacher preparation program further prepares candidates to evaluate, select, use and adapt state-board adopted and state-board approved materials, as well as other supplemental instructional materials.  The program provides opportunities for teacher candidates to demonstrate the ability to use a variety of criteria for selection of instructional materials, to assess the suitability and appropriateness for local context and to augment resources when they are not suitable or available.
 
The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program prepares bilingual teacher candidates with a deep understanding of bilingual methodology through its various coursework, assignments, and field experience.  For example, candidates are prepared to understand the interrelatedness among the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and distinguish language forms and functions in the primary (Spanish and Hmong Languages) and target (English) languages through their required coursework such as in the Spanish emphasis: SPAN 134 and LEE 136 or in Hmong emphasis: LEE 129, and LEE 135.  Following is a more specific response to each of the CTC’s program planning questions in reference to coursework in the KSOEHD Bilingual Authorization Credential Program.
 
The professional bilingual teacher preparation program provides candidates with knowledge of the history, policies, programs, and research on the effectiveness of bilingual education and bilingualism in the United States.
 
4.1
How does the program design and develop the candidates’ understanding of the applications, benefits and limitations of different bilingual program models?
 
Multiple Subject credential students pursuing a bilingual certification take various courses fitting for their language of emphasis that focuses on their understanding of the applications, benefits and limitations of different bilingual program models.  For students focusing on Spanish emphasis, courses SPAN 134 and LEE 136 provide an overview on different bilingual program models research by Thomas & Collier regarding English Learners throughout the United States by program types: Sheltered Immersion, English Language Development, and Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English, Transitional Bilingual, Maintenance Bilingual, Heritage Immersion, & Dual Language Immersion.  Equally, Hmong emphasis, courses LEE 129 and LEE 135 provide teaching methodology in the primary language for bilingual and cross-cultural classrooms
 
The CLAS 116 course prepares candidates to understand and apply research and its effects on the dimension of learning in bilingual education program models.  The program develops candidates who demonstrate understanding of the philosophical, theoretical, legal and legislative foundations of bilingual education and their effects on program design and educational achievement [see CLAS 116].
 
4.2
How does the program provide candidates the understanding of ways in which variations in students’ primary languages (e. g, dialectal and/or tonal differences, use of vernacular forms) can be used to facilitate the development of social and academic language?
 
The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program prepares candidates to understand the ways in which variations in students’ primary languages (e. g, dialectal and/or tonal differences and use of vernacular forms) can be used to facilitate the development of social and academic language.  For example in the Spanish concentrations, candidates in SPAN 134, SPAN 121A, and SPAN 136 are made aware of the variations of the Spanish spoken in the San Joaquin Valley, with a special emphasis placed on Mexicanisms and archaic terms.  They learn how these terms both enrich and interfere in the acquisition of standard Spanish.  In HMONG 100 and 101 candidates develop linguistic, bilingual, and bicultural competency.  For example, candidates acquire accurate knowledge on how to be able to identify issues and analyze them to propose appropriate answers to situations in reference to the use of language where there may be discrepancies and/or cultural and language conflicts.
 
The importance of Dr. Cummins’s BICs and CALPs is often referred to in many of the classes as they apply to bilingual instruction [LEE 172, LEE 136].  Students in LEE 136 read an article written in New Mexico Spanish as one of the class activities.
 
The CLAS 116 course prepares candidates’ knowledge of the transferability between primary and target language with the understanding that the level of transferability is affected by the level of compatibility and may vary among languages.
 
The LEE 136 prepares students to read an article written in New Mexico Spanish as one of the class activities.
 
4.3
How does the program ensure that candidates apply knowledge of language structures (e.g., word roots, prefixes, suffixes), forms (e.g., registers) and functions (e.g., informing, describing, persuading) to develop and deliver effective language and literacy instruction in the primary and target languages?
 
Program candidates are prepared to apply knowledge of language structures, forms and functions to develop and deliver effective language and literacy instruction in the primary and target languages.  For students focusing on Spanish certification, SPAN 134, and SPAN, 121A, students learn in great depth the morphology of Spanish, including word roots, prefixes and suffixes, in order to acquire and teach in the target language.  In these two courses students also learn about the different registers in written Spanish and learn the appropriate vocabulary for each type of essay.  In these courses emphasis is placed on academic essays, such as expository and argumentative. For students focusing on Hmong certification, course Hmong 101 provides students with the ability to use a rich and more diversified vocabulary to describe ideas--in a language with shade of meanings, capable to express and communicate complex thoughts, reflections or emotions.
 
SPAN 119, SPAN 121A & SPAN 134: In all three classes, students are reminded that their writing and reading skills in one language can be transferred to the other, such as in paragraph and essay structure, including thesis development.  At the same time, students are made aware that they must pay special attention to similarities and differences in syntax, morphology and semantics between the languages (e.g. the usage of diminutives and augmentatives in Spanish with their respective connotations and detonations). Students analyze and contrast the special lexical characteristics of the two languages, which can sometimes cause grammatical confusion and cultural misunderstanding.  For example, students learn that “agarrar” does not always translate as “to get” in English.

SPAN 119 & SPAN 121A: Translation exercises are used in the course in order for students to be made aware of the morphological and syntactical contrast between the two languages.  The translation exercises focus on specific grammar points, such as “gustar” and other similar verbs.
 
4.4
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate knowledge of literary analysis in appropriate genres and forms, and their significance for planning, organization, and delivery including strategies to provide differentiated instruction in primary and target language instruction based on student proficiency levels?

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program provides candidates with various coursework that ensures them with capacity to demonstrate knowledge of analysis in the various forms as described above.  For students focusing on Spanish certification, SPAN 134, students learn strategies to teach language and literature according to the grade level of the students.  Every student has to write a lesson plan for a certain grade level and then do a mock teaching presentation for the class.  For example, a lesson plan may focus on explaining what a fable is and having the children read and discuss the meaning of the fable.  For the Hmong focus, HMONG 100 and 101, students learn to identify issues and analyze them and propose appropriate answers to situational use of language where there may be discrepancies and/or cultural and language conflicts.   Course LEE 172 provides students (course common to Spanish and Hmong concentration) with the ability to provide appropriate strategies when differentiating instruction in the target language (English) based on student proficiency levels by various field experience assignments.  First assignment is data collection on their English language students on levels of language proficiency (see LEE 172).  Second and third assignments are observing a model ELD and SDAIE lesson.  In these assignments students later discuss in class strategies identified based on language proficiency.  FAST Exam:  Course LEE 136 reviews children’s literature in Spanish and discuss how to incorporate a variety of literature books into the content of instructional units.

4.5
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate understanding of the roles, purposes and uses of standardized and non-standardized primary and target language assessments in bilingual education settings in order to interpret the results to plan, organize, modify and differentiate instruction in the appropriate language(s) in bilingual education settings?
 
The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program prepares bilingual candidates with the skills necessary to demonstrate their knowledge in utilizing standardized and non-standardize primary and target language assessments in bilingual education classrooms.

For the Spanish concentration, LEE 136 statement describes this process: “Evaluation and use of primary-language materials for instruction and assessment.”  LEE 136 reviews language proficiency exams [BSM, CELDT, LAS, IPT, etc.] administered in English and Spanish to assess proficiency in the four language domains: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.  Spanish academic normed tests are also discussed [APRENDA, SABE] in relation to English Academic normed tests [CST, CAHSEE] and benchmark tests. The unit tests, ongoing assessments, checklists, and other assessment tools presented in the Spanish textbooks are also discussed. The various test results can be used to group students with common needs to provide more intensive, focused instruction in both English and Spanish.  The importance of identifying learning disorders through assessments in both the primary and the second language is discussed to avoid misplacing English Learners in special education.

For Hmong, the HMONG 135 course ensures that candidates plan appropriate instruction for Hmong students in responding to their levels of English Language Proficiency, literacy and background knowledge.  Based on appropriate assessment information, candidates select instructional materials and strategies to develop students’ abilities to comprehend and produce English, orally and in written form (see Hmong 135).  Course HMONG 101 also develops candidates with the skills to apply and transfer English written standards into Hmong writing and reading.  Course LEE 172 (course common to Spanish and Hmong concentration) provides students with …
 
4.6
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate the ability to evaluate and incorporate technology to develop students’ literacy in the primary and target languages as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of technology for literacy development?

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program makes certain that candidates acquire the ability to evaluate and incorporate technology to create students literacy in the primary and target languages as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of technology for literacy development in various courses.

For the Spanish concentration, candidates develop these skills in LEE 136.  The students submit their assignments online via the campus Blackboard and receive individualized feedback from their instructors.  The students use Microsoft Word [or a similar word processing program] to complete their assignments using the spell check features, the insert clip art – pictures features, the reference features for citing quotes, citations and inserting the bibliography and table of contents.  Students are advised to use visuals as a part of all of their reports to establish the habit of providing scaffolding to second language learners.  Websites such as Enchanted Learning are introduced to the students.
 
For Hmong candidates, Hmong 101 serves to use technology as integrated learning: Internet, software for writing, reading, presenting research.

Course LEE 172 (course common to Spanish and Hmong concentration) also provides students with important websites (i.e. www.cal.org/create; www.colorincolorado.org) that support literacy in the target language or primary language as references for assignments and future use or in multicultural education (i.e. .www.smarttech.com; www.enchantedlearning.com).   

 4.7
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate knowledge of strategies for aligning instruction with California K-12 content standards and frameworks appropriate to grade-level expectations and students’ language proficiency in the primary and target languages?
 
Students are required to develop lesson plans and observe lessons in the multi-subject credential classes [LEE 170; LEE 172) and the BCLAD classes [LEE 135 and LEE 136] that include language and content standards together with language and content objectives.  They are directed to the California ELD standards and California Content standards to locate the most appropriate standards for their lessons in both the primary language and in the second language.  The ELD standards are used to develop English proficiencies in the four language domains [listening, speaking, reading and writing] for English Learners and are available online at the California Department of Education website.  For SLD, the students are directed to the “Estándares de lecto-escritura en español” developed by the San Diego County of Education. The content standards are used to design SDAIE lessons for second language learners in the core curriculum areas [Math, Science, Social Studies, etc.]. The content standards are also available online at the California Department of Education website.  As a part of the SDAIE lessons, the students are directed to include specific lesson activities directed at each of the five levels of ELD proficiencies.  The SDAIE lessons may be written in English for Spanish speakers and/or in Spanish for English speakers.  The students are also directed to the California Foreign Language Frameworks also available online at www.cde.ca.gov [California Department of Education].

4.8
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate understanding of the interrelatedness of language and literacy development in order to plan, select and use a variety of strategies for developing students’ content-area knowledge and skills in bilingual education settings including language and grade-level content objectives in lesson, providing linguistic scaffolding and activating background knowledge and experiences?

In all three Spanish classes (SPAN 119, 121A, and 134), the instructors use a variety of strategies to develop the ability of the students to write using standard Spanish, and at the same time the instructors remind the students that they can apply these same strategies in their own teaching.  For example, in Spanish 119, the students often work in pairs and groups and take over the role of instructor.  Often they are told to explain the day's lesson (such as when to use the subjunctive and the indicative moods) to their partner in order to insure that they understand it sufficiently in order to teach it.  In Spanish 121A, the students do peer editing in pairs so that they acquire the experience of teaching.  Each student writes an evaluation of the partner's essay and gives it to the partner.  In this way, the students are able to "activate their background knowledge and experience."

In Hmong 100, students will acquire aural and written styles, deepen the understanding of Hmong language as a system of dynamic sounds, of grammatical rules and as a collection of verbal expressions.

In LEE 136, a variety of bilingual strategies [total physical response, language experience approach, preview-review, bilingual flash cards, bilingual illustrated dictionaries, etc.] are demonstrated and discussed in class with particular emphasis on which language development proficiency levels would most benefit from each strategy. Students discuss how to use language and content objectives to activate prior knowledge, check for comprehension during the lesson, and assess student proficiencies related to the objectives following the lesson. Two units in the Dual Language Instruction textbook are analyzed to determine how language and content lessons direct the instruction.

4.9
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate understanding of a variety of instructional approaches that foster student engagement and interaction and   the development of higher-order thinking skills (e.g., analysis, inference, synthesis, evaluation) and facilitate students’ understanding and use of content-specific language functions (e.g., analyzing, comparing and contrasting, persuading, citing evidence, making hypotheses) in oral and written forms of the primary and target language?
 
In LEE 136 and LEE 170 students are required to turn in a hand written reflection at the end of each class session that includes three sections: Topics discussed in class, what I learned today, and my reflections [opinions, triggered memories, possible applications, etc.].  The purpose of the written reflections is for each student to determine the impact of the new information on their future as teachers.  In LEE 136 the reflections are submitted in Spanish while in LEE 170 the reflections are submitted in English. The reflections also provide feedback to the instructor after each class to modify and adapt the instruction as needed to assure student understanding.  Students are introduced to the Bloom’s taxonomy of questioning with the goal of gradually using higher order level questions as the students acquire their second language but also used in their first language as soon as possible.

4.10
 "...ensure that candidates demonstrate understanding of a variety of instructional approaches that foster student engagement and interaction and the development of higher-order thinking skills...."

In all three Spanish classes (SPAN 119, 121A, and 134) students do a variety of activities that develop the higher-order thinking skills.  For example, in Spanish 119 and Spanish 121A, when students learn about the use of the letter h in Spanish, they are given the Greek and Latin prefixes and must analyze words like "hemorragia" and "hidrocefalia" and must determine why they are written with an h.

In Hmong 101, students will enhance the approach of “Posing hypotheses- finding answers by making interpretation” or global comprehension on complex texts

In LEE 136, students select quotes directly related to a variety of topics and then must use their personal higher order thinking skills to reflect on the quotes they selected.  The reflections must be written in Spanish.  Students are grouped in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups for class activities.
 
In CLAS 116, candidates apply knowledge of the research on the cognitive effects of bilingualism and biliteracy as developmental processes in instructional practice.

4.11
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate understanding of ways in which students’ life experiences (immigrant or refugee experience, prior educational experiences, oral tradition), language development, and language variations can be used to foster content learning in the primary and target languages?
 
In all three Spanish classes (SPAN 119, 121A, 134), instructors understand and take into account the fact that most of the students come from a rural, immigrant or refugee background.  For example, instructors make students aware of the need to expand one's vocabulary and general cultural knowledge in order to be able to communicate both orally and in writing at an academic level.  At the same time, students are told that their own experiences and background are very relevant in the process of acquisition of new knowledge, and that both types of knowledge and experience are essential in the classroom, as students or as teachers.  By doing so, the students learn that when they become teachers, they will face the same situation, especially if they teach in the rural areas of the San Joaquin Valley.  For example, in the Spanish classes, special consideration is given to literary texts that have to do with the rural experience of the students.  For example, they read and analyze stories about the “campesino” experience.
 
In Hmong 100, students are encouraged to share from their own experience, and fragments of the Hmong culture that they are familiar with in sight of fostering a better understanding of their own and of another contemporary civilization, and also stimulating a systematic reflection on their own ideas, values and beliefs.
 
In Hmong 101, native speakers will be asked to share their knowledge of culture and experiences.
 
In LEE 136, the short novel “Me llamoMaría Isabel” [My Name is María Isabel] provides many opportunities for the students to share their personal experiences when they first came to school as Spanish speakers.
 
In CLAS 116, the program prepares candidates to actively promote authentic parental participation that includes learning about school systems, assuming leadership roles and affecting policy.  Field Study Activity. Students will be required to attend one of the following: City Council Meeting, Board of Supervisors Meeting, or a Community Organization Meeting. The purpose of the assignment is for the student to experience the policy/decision making process.
 
In SPAN 121A, students are informed that the formal letter format can be utilized to communicate with parents and school personnel.
 
In LEE 129, student communicates with Hmong adults about issues in education and conferencing with parents.
 
4.12
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate the ability to select, develop and/or adapt, administer and interpret a variety of content assessments in order to plan, organize and differentiate instruction in bilingual settings?
 
As students observe ELD/SLD and content lesson observations, they must apply their knowledge of assessments used before, during, and after the lessons to evaluate the progress of the students.  In LEE 136 the various language proficiency and content area unit and state exams are discussed as they relate to providing instruction in the bilingual classroom.  Chapter 8 of the Dual Language Instruction [Cloud 200] presents assessments used to develop model bilingual lessons including nonverbal responses, labeling tasks, matching tasks, true/false quizzes, and simple explanations.
 
4.13
How does the program ensure that candidates have the ability to reflect upon and implement effective practice that fosters the development of biliteracy through content instruction?
 
In LEE 136 the students must submit daily reflections on a variety of topics directly related to bilingual classroom instruction [family, school, students, tests, learning English, learning Spanish, common sayings, cultural activities, academic concepts, reading in Spanish, and math in Spanish]. Chapter 5 [Cloud, 2000] presents many ideas on developing literacy in two languages including transference of concepts, building strong skills in the primary language, selecting appropriate materials, parent involvement, develop oral language skills, culturally appropriate materials, teach in stage-appropriate ways, and many other strategies and priorities.
 
4.14
How does the program promote the candidates’ understanding of central concepts of intercultural communication including patterns of nonverbal communication, oral and written discourse and origins of dialectical and/or tonal variations and their influence on standard academic language development?

In Hmong 100, focuses on perfecting the speaking skills and abilities: to develop vocabulary, to improve tones in using chanting/singing learning approach, to be able to converse in describing, explaining a story.
 
Through the study of “dichos and refranes” [common sayings], the students in LEE 136 compare Spanish sayings to English sayings and the variations of idiomatic expressions used in both languages.  The LEE 136 students also read and discuss an article written in the New Mexico dialect of Spanish.  Many examples of silent language and body language are discussed especially when the meaning changes across cultures.
 
In all three Spanish courses (SPAN 119, SPAN 121A & SPAN 134) special emphasis is given to the understanding of code-switching, language mixing and inter-language (e.g. uses of Spanglish and false cognates).  Students also learn about the use of standard Spanish versus regional variation of Spanish (e.g. the use of “pelo chino” instead of “pelorizado”).
 
In LEE 135 and LEE 136 focus is placed on the discussion of nonverbal communication, compare and contrast L1 and L2 [Spanish and English or Hmong and English], learn how to expand dialectical vocabulary to include academic vocabulary, and [in LEE 136] discuss Spanish-English cognates.
 
4.15
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate the ability to review and evaluate materials, to identify potential areas of offense or bias (e.g., race, class, gender, religion, country of origin) and to ensure appropriate representation of linguistic and cultural diversity within and across language and cultural groups?
 
In LEE 136, students are introduced to children’s literature books in Spanish from a variety of sources.  Emphasis is placed on selecting the books which provide authentic representations of students within the context of their own cultural setting.  Whenever possible, students are advised to locate children’s books written by authors from within the culture of the materials presented in the books.
 
In SPAN 119 and 121A, students are made aware of potential areas of offense or bias when using Spanish in contrast with English.  For example, the use of the term "negro" in Spanish; the frequent use of religious expressions in Spanish, such as "Dios mío;" or the use of what are considered terms of endearment in Spanish, such as "gordo" and "gorda."
 
In HMONG 100 & 101, focus is placed on the development of linguistic, bilingual and bicultural competency and accurate knowledge: to be able to identify issues, and analyze then propose appropriate answers to situations of use of language where there may be discrepancies and/or cultural and language conflicts.

4.16
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate the ability to develop, adapt, evaluate, and/or align primary and target language materials, content standards and curriculum frameworks?
 
In SPAN 119, 121A, and 134, students learn strategies to teach language and literature according to the grade level of the students.  They learn about the standards and how to develop lessons that align with them.  As part of this experience, the students have to write a lesson plan for a certain grade level and then do a mock teaching presentation for the class.
 
In LEE 136 and LEE 172, students must identify the content standards based on the California standards for their language and content lesson observations. The materials selected and used must also be culturally relevant.  In LEE 136, they are also directed to the California Foreign Language frameworks.
 
4.17
How does the program ensure that candidates demonstrate the ability to evaluate and select state-adopted and state-approved textbooks, and supplementary materials in primary and target language for bilingual education settings based on a variety of criteria including appropriateness for instructional purpose, alignment with curriculum, student and community needs and level of academic language?
 
In LEE 136 students are directed to a variety of publishers and websites that specialize in materials for bilingual classrooms.  They are also directed to organizations such as NABE, CABE, Two-Way CABE, and the Center for Applied Linguistics to locate the most recent information regarding the selection and criteria for bilingual materials.

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