Standard 3: The Context for Bilingual Education and Bilingualism

The professional bilingual teacher preparation program provides candidates with knowledge of the history, policies, programs, and research on the effectiveness of bilingual education and bilingualism in the United States.  The program develops candidates who demonstrate understanding of the philosophical, theoretical, legal and legislative foundations of bilingual education and their effects on program design and educational achievement. 

Candidates apply knowledge of the research on the cognitive effects of bilingualism and biliteracy as developmental processes in instructional practice.  Candidates understand and apply research and its effects on the dimensions of learning in bilingual education program models.  The program prepares candidates’ knowledge of the transferability between primary and target language with the understanding that the level of transferability is affected by the level of compatibility and may vary among languages

The program prepares candidates to actively promote authentic parental participation that includes learning about school systems, assuming leadership roles and affecting policy.  The program promotes candidates’ understanding of the family as a primary language and cultural resource. Candidates are cognizant that students’ motivation, participation and achievement are influenced by an intercultural classroom climate and school community.

3.1
How does the program ensure that candidates develop understanding of the philosophical, theoretical, and research bases for bilingual education, including knowledge of the historical and legal foundations of bilingual education in the United States (e.g., Elementary and Secondary Education Act [ESEA], Lau v. Nichols, Castañeda v. Pickard) and California (e.g., Méndez v. Westminster, Proposition 227, Williams v. State of California) and their effects on bilingual education programs?

The professional bilingual teacher preparation program provides candidates with knowledge of the history, policies, programs, and research on the effectiveness of bilingual education and bilingualism in the United States. The program develops candidates who demonstrate understanding of the philosophical, theoretical, legal and legislative foundations of bilingual education and their effects on program design and educational achievement.  The specific courses address these issue by having students in LEE 172 examine and analyze specific laws and legislation that have impacted the use of bilingual education in public schools. This is done through lectures, discussions and reflections. Students are expected to reflect on the implications of certain laws and how they affect the use of bilingual education in the classroom [see LEE 172 syllabus].

In LEE 136, students learn about the historical context of bilingual education in this course as well as learn about how to apply instructional strategies in the primary language. Students receive knowledge in both theory and practice.  Students will learn about the history, policies and programs on the effectiveness of bilingual education in the United States. In addition, students learn about the specific role English Language Development (ELD) plays in a k-12 classroom as well as how to integrate ELD within a bilingual education classroom.  Students complete a “Dialogo con el Tema” every week. Students address a different topic every week and respond to it in the form a reflection that contains two quotes, a visual, one interpretive paragraph and one classroom implication paragraph. Students reflect on topics such as bilingual education theory, policy and practice [see LEE 136 syllabus].

In CLAS 116, students learn and understand the public/decision making process and how it can be used to effect change for the Chicano/Latino.  Students learn about the evidence of a very high Chicano/Latino high school dropout rate and a very low college entrance rate.  Their learning of this material provides students with a set of important skills to be utilized as they interact creatively and constructively with the Chicano/Latino communities. In the Field Study/Activity Report, students will be required to attend one of the following: city council meeting, board of supervisors meeting, a school board meeting, or community organization meeting (consult instructor for approval of community organization).  The purpose of this assignment is for the student to experience the policy/decision making process [see CLAS 116 syllabus].

3.2
How does the program ensure that candidates can analyze the effects and impact of federal, state and local policies on the measurement of educational achievement of students in bilingual programs?

In LEE 172 students examine the impact of federal, state and local policies on the educational achievement of bilingual students. Teacher candidates provide reflections based on the readings and a review of the policies driving instructional strategies in the classroom. In a course assignment, the students reflect on policy implications of policies impacting services for bilingual students [See LEE 172].

In LEE 136, students study the results of the Collier and Thomas research by the types of programs and services that English Learners receive in the United States.  They learn that many school policies limit the services students receive in their primary language and the impact it has on the high school state test results.  A comparison is made between ELD, SDAIE, Transitional Bilingual, and Bilingual Immersion programs [See LEE 136].

3.3
How does the program help candidates to develop understanding of the theoretical foundations, practice, limitations, and effects of the deficit perspective of bilingual education (e.g., viewing the primary language as an obstacle, limiting use of the primary language, promoting assimilation in the target culture) and the enrichment perspective of bilingual education (e.g., viewing the primary language as a right and an asset, promoting the development of bilingualism and biculturalism, promoting acculturation to the target culture?

In CLAS 116 students apply knowledge of the research on the cognitive effects of bilingualism and biliteracy as developmental processes in instructional practice. Students understand and apply research and its effects on the dimensions of learning in bilingual education program models. The program prepares candidates’ knowledge of the transferability between primary and target language with the understanding that the level of transferability is affected by the level of compatibility and may vary among languages.

In LEE 136, candidates apply knowledge of the research in second language acquisition to the theoretical and practical foundations of bilingual education.  By knowing the theories in learning a second language, candidates can apply these theories to instructional practices in the classroom.  Candidates are able to apply both theory and practice by reflecting on these concepts and designing lessons in Spanish showing how they make instructional decisions based on the theory of the course [see LEE 136].

In CLAS 116, students choose a topic to research and investigate. Students are expected to write a research paper on any topic affecting the Chicano/Latino community. Students can focus on issues of language. They can discuss issues of assimilation, language loss, or maintenance of the first language. Students are encouraged to investigate a topic they are interested in and that relates to the course content [see CLAS 116, Research Paper assignment].

In ANTH 123, students apply the course content and readings to an online posting on Blackboard.  Students reflect on the readings and connect it to their own personal experiences.  The course specifically deals with the cultures of South East Asians. Issues of language are discussed in these online postings [see ANTH 123].

In LEE 172, students learn the importance of primary language instruction in the context of learning English as a second language.  They learn this through first understanding first language development through discussing the three theories of first language acquisition.  All Multiple Subject credential candidates take this course, including BCLAD candidates. It is an important course in laying the groundwork for understanding language transfer to the target language.  Students understand the concept of acculturation as it relates to the immigrant/bilingual child. The importance of understanding acculturation vs. assimilation are discussed and students understand that one is deficit and the other is additive [see LEE 172]. 

3.4
How does the program provide guidance for philosophical, theoretical, and research bases for bilingual education, including the characteristics, components, benefits, and limitations of research-based program models of bilingual education (e.g., dual-language, one-way immersion, two-way immersion, transitional bilingual education, maintenance bilingual education, heritage language education)?

In LEE 136, students learn about the critical features of dual language immersion programs and the importance of bilingual programs that incorporate language, culture, and academics in two languages to not only promote bilingualism, biculturalism, biliteracy, and bicognitive skills but also to attain high academic proficiencies in two languages [see LEE 136].

3.5
What components of the program prepare candidates to develop and apply knowledge of metacognitive and metalinguistic processes (e.g., choosing the appropriate language to use in a given situation, evaluating similarities and differences between languages, transferring linguistic knowledge between languages) and roles of code switching, language mixing and interlanguage in the development of bilingualism and biliteracy?

In all three Spanish classes (SPAN 119, 121A 134), the students become familiarized with the different speaking registers, especially those required to speak with parents and students (e.g. the differences between tú and usted).  Spec ial emphasis is given to the understanding of code switching, language mixing and inter-language (e.g. uses of Spanglish and false cognates).  Students also learn about the use of standard Spanish versus regional variations of Spanish (e.g. the use of "pelo chino" instead of "pelorizado") [see SPAN 119, SPAN 121A and SPAN 134].

In Hmong 100, students learn to approach the language and the culture in an analytical way, and to become sensitive to the existing – but invisible –links that tie word to concept, and knowledge to practice to enhance their bilingual and bicultural competency [see HMONG 100].

In Hmong 101, students learn of the existing parallelism between English and Hmong.  Students learn through a weekly dictation assignment the parallels between English and Hmong. Students also complete a text study investigating grammar and vocabulary of the Hmong language [see HMONG 101, Text-study assignment/Dictation assignment].

In LEE 136, students are expected to read the textbook in English and then write about the information in Spanish.  They are expected to present oral reports in Spanish without using English.  Their writing assignments [diálogos] include topics such as Learning English, Learning Spanish, English Reading, Spanish Reading, Spanish Math, Spanish Science and Spanish Social Studies.  They must locate a quote from the textbook or other media directly related to the topic, paraphrase the quote, and then give their reflection on how the quote is related to their personal and professional life.  The quote may be in English or Spanish, but the remainder of the assignment must be in Spanish [see LEE 136].

3.6
What components of the program support teachers to understand brain research on the developmental processes of bilingualism and biliteracy, and apply knowledge for appropriate language use and usage (e.g., translation, language allocation by program model) when interacting with students at different developmental stages of bilingualism and biliteracy?

In Hmong 101, students are able to identify, to analyze then to propose appropriate outcomes to situations or contexts where there are discrepancies and/or cultural and language conflicts [see HMONG 101].

In LEE 172, candidates learn in this course the importance of the primary language in development of the first language. By studying first language development, specifically Noam Chomsky’s theory of the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) students learn that there is an innate ability to learn languages.  The LAD plays a role in the first and second language development. Candidates watch a video entitled “Baby Talk” where they learn through Noam Chomsky how babies learn their first language.  Brain research plays a critical role in understanding the development processes of bilingualism and biliteracy.  Candidates learn early on that bilingualism does not occur in isolated compartments in the brain and that it does not cause confusion in language learning.  These are essential elements in studying bilingualism and it’s relation to the brain [see LEE 172].

In LEE 136, the similarities and differences between first language acquisition and second language acquisition are discussed throughout the semester.  Learning to speak, read, and write throughout the academic curriculum is emphasized. Instruction in the first language as well as instruction in the second language is a key feature of the entire semester [see LEE 136].

3.7
How does the program develop each candidates’ understanding of the transferability of language and literacy skills and the acquisition of content and context knowledge between the primary and target languages, including ways in which language transfer can be affected by the level of compatibility between the primary and target language?

In all three Spanish classes (SPAN 119, 121A 134), students are reminded that their writing and reading skills in one language can be transferred to the other, such as in paragraph and essay structure, including thesis development.  At the same time, students are made aware that they must pay special attention to similarities and differences in syntax, morphology and semantics between the languages (e.g. the usage of diminutives and augmentatives in Spanish with their respective connotations and detonations).

In Hmong 100, students learn to apply and transfer English academic abilities into Hmong language learning process, especially the passage of oral style to written approach or conversational to literate, formal and/or academic style [see HMONG 101 syllabus/Text Study assignment].

In LEE 172, candidates learn about the importance of using cognates in the content areas.  The first language is a tool and content knowledge is first.  Candidates learn specific strategies on how to connect first language content knowledge to second language content information.  The use of cognates in math and science are encouraged. Candidates learn that there may times when they do not have re-teach content knowledge, instead use the first language content knowledge to access the second.

In LEE 136, one of the main goals of the class is “transferring language and literacy skills.”  Reference is made to Cummins’s research on BICs, CALPs, and the Threshold Theory.  One of the classroom activities is comparing and contrasting English and Spanish with the students providing many examples from their own experiences.

3.8
How does the program incorporate opportunities for candidates to apply knowledge of the use of contrastive analysis (i.e., comparing and contrasting similarities and differences, including nonexistent features, in the phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, and usage of different languages) to facilitate development of listening, speaking, reading, and writings skills in the primary and target language?

In Spanish 119 and 121A, translation exercises are used in the course in order for students to be made aware of the morphological and syntactical contrast between the two languages.  The translation exercises focus on specific grammar points, such as  "gustar" and other similar verbs. 
In all three Spanish classes (SPAN 119, 121A 134), a great emphasis is placed on the phonological differences between English and Spanish.  For example, the students learn about written and oral alphabetical differences, such as the Spanish ñ and the English shwa. 

In all three Spanish classes (SPAN 119, 121A 134), students analyze and contrast the special lexical characteristics of the two languages, which can sometimes cause grammatical confusion and cultural misunderstandings.  For example, students learn that "agarrar" does not always translate as "to get" in English. 

In Hmong 101, course focuses on candidates being able to communicate in conversational situations in order to have a better pronunciation, especially the pre-nazalised consonants (Nt, nts, ntx, etc.).  Students complete a dictation assignment every week where they learn the language variations/sound variations in the Hmong language.

In LEE 136, students’ focus on true and false cognates are presented and discussed in the Math, Science and Social Studies areas of the school curriculum.  English and Spanish features are also compared and contrasted in class.

3.9
How does the program prepare candidates to enhance school-home partnerships, and assist in identifying and using community resources? (i.e., candidates support families to contribute their knowledge to culturally inclusive institutions and participate in school forums and organizations)

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program prepares candidates to actively promote authentic parental participation that includes learning about school systems, assuming leadership roles and affecting policy.  The program promotes candidates’ understanding of the family as a primary language and cultural resource.  Candidates are cognizant that students’ motivation, participation and achievement, are influenced by an intercultural classroom climate and school community.

In LEE 136, course focuses on teaching content in L1/L2 and building on and using the learner’s home and community culture.  Students complete a “diálogo” on the family. Students use Appendix A in the LEE 136 to write a reflection on the area of family and how the family impacts the acquisition of two languages.

In CLAS 116, students discuss the importance of being inclusive of families in the classroom and reflect on the variety of ways to inform parents of the theoretical underpinnings of bilingual education.  Candidates learn that parents and community plays an instrumental role in the academic achievement of the children they are teaching.  Family and community are resources and candidates learn about how to be more inclusive of family by practical methods and looking at one’s own philosophical beliefs regarding the family and community. Students develop a short-term parent plan for their first week of instruction. Students must consider factors such as parent interests, language, literacy, siblings and any other factors that may be used as “funds of knowledge” in the classroom or may impeded parent involvement.

In CLAS 116, students participate in a Field Study Activity.  This activity consists of students attending one of the following: City Council Meeting; Board of Supervisors Meeting; or a Community Organization Meeting.  The purpose of the assignment is for the student to experience the policy/decision making process.

3.10
How does the program prepare candidates for effective, two-way communication with families through the appropriate medium (e.g. parent conferences, phone, home visits, written communication, e-mail, and videos in the primary language) on matters of students success, the family’s educational goals, guidance, notification of rights, placement and program options; understanding student achievement and assessment results; parent roles in supporting student achievement; school and district policies and parent opportunities to influence school policy?

In Hmong 101, focus is placed on students acquiring communicative strategies for different situations in daily life such as expressing feelings, making plans, presenting and reacting to opinions, initiating, continuing and ending a conversation, a discussion or a debate. Students will learn strategies to empower themselves while communicating with community and family, and for professional needs.

In LEE 136, focus is placed on students writing a letter to parents in Spanish and encourages them to enroll their children in two-way Bilingual Immersion Program.  Students practice oral presentations to parents in Spanish [see LEE 136].

In LEE 129, students learn the importance of how to communicate with Hmong adults about issues in education and conferencing with parents.

In LEE 172, students are exposed to organizations such as PIQE, Parent Institute for Quality Education.  Guest speakers introduce to students important factors in establishing positive relationships with parents through parent conferences, phone calls, and home visits.  Candidates learn about how to effectively communicate with parents by establishing a parent plan their first week of instruction.

In LEE 135, student must be able demonstrate the knowledge of the interrelationship among the school, Hmong parents, and community. These interrelationships are discussed in weekly discussions.

In Spanish 121A, students learn to write formal letters in Spanish, which can be used in any professional or business setting.  Students are informed that this letter format can be utilized to communicate with parents and school personnel. 

In Spanish 134, students participate in role-playing activities in order to practice their Spanish.  These include mock face-to-face interviews and phone conversations with parents of school children. 

In Hmong 100, students write a play as a group theatrical piece that they will be performing at the end of the semester.

3.11
How does the program promote the candidates’ understanding of cultural influences on learning and teaching in bilingual program settings and the understanding of the effects of intercultural communication on school/community climate, student motivation, participation and achievement?

Candidates in LEE 172 investigate the home/school and community/school connection and climate by interviewing a bilingual student in the first phase of the program. Candidates present the child in a powerpoint addressing the characteristics of the community the child lives in. Candidates highlight the importance of establishing connections with home and school through this presentation.  Candidates understand through this Cultural Awareness presentation the importance of intercultural communication in order to increase achievement in the classroom [see LEE 172].

In LEE 136, candidates develop the skills required to teach content in L1/L2 and build on using the learners’ home and community culture.  Some diálogo related topics include: The family [la familia], Sayings [Dichos y refranes], and cultural activities in the school [actividadesculturales]

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