Prior to recommending each candidate for a bilingual authorization, one or more persons
responsible for the program determine on the basis of thoroughly documented evidence
that each candidate has demonstrated a satisfactory performance on the full range
of program standards including language proficiency as they apply to bilingual authorization.
During the program, candidates are guided and coached on their performance in bilingual
instruction using formative assessment processes. Verification of candidate’s performance
is provided by both institutional and field-based individuals with bilingual expertise
and/or possessing bilingual authorization.
The Bilingual Coordinator, in collaboration with the Liberal Studies Coordinator, the Multiple Subject Program Coordinator, the Director of Field Placement, faculty and university supervisors, work jointly to oversee the coursework of bilingual teacher candidates, as part of the Bilingual Multiple Subject Program. This join effort includes monitoring student development and achievement, including language proficiency during candidate’s enrollment in the Liberal Studies and 2042 Multiple Subject Credential Program.
Bilingual teacher candidates take the majority of their bilingual concentration coursework during their Liberal Studies Concentration. However, candidates may also take the coursework while in the Multiple Subject Credential Program or within one year of completing the credential program [see Liberal Studies Handbook]. The bilingual program coursework is aligned to the Commission on Teaching Credentialing (CTC) bilingual program standards. As such, the CTC bilingual program standards are embedded within the various courses in both the Spanish and Hmong programs (see course syllabi). Under the Liberal Studies major, students are requires to have a 3.00 overall GPA in their course work with no grade lower than a “C”. Documentation in meeting the program standards by student candidates have been embedded within the various five required Spanish and Hmong courses in terms of assignments, exams, projects, and field experiences [see Tables 1 & 2]. All undergraduate students, including students in the bilingual concentration meet regularly with Liberal Studies counselors for guidance and review for completion of course studies.
Upon completing their Liberal Studies Concentration, the bilingual candidates apply and seek admission to the Multiple Subject Credential Program. Part of the admission is declaring their interest in a bilingual credential to the KSOEHD admission officer. Once student has been admitted to the 2042 Multiple Subject Program, the Admission Officer will provide a copy of that declaration to the Bilingual Coordinator. This document provides evidence to Bilingual Coordinator that candidate has met his/her requirements to enter the Multiple Subject Program, including passing grades in their Spanish or Hmong concentration. In the Multiple Subject Program, bilingual teacher candidates will continue completing remaining courses in their bilingual program (see Table 2). The following table provides a description of how credential candidates of Spanish and Hmong languages meet standards competency through coursework.
Table 5. Bilingual Authorization Standards Supported through Coursework
Language Assessment for Program Entry
Admission to the Multiple Subject Program with a Bilingual Authorization credential requires that students score at the ACTFL Intermediate High level on the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Language Proficiency exam. The exam will be administered as a part of SPAN 134 / LEE 129 and later again as a part of LEE 136 / LEE 135 for students who did not reach the Intermediate High level.
Candidates must successfully pass the entry interview with the Bilingual Coordinator to be admitted to the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program. The interview involves a dialogue about the candidate's willingness to complete the program; their sensitivity to children of differing ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds; their pre-professional experiences, and their personal qualities. These interviews are conducted in the target language in order to ascertain their language skills and their multicultural knowledge of various ethnic groups. In addition, a Check List Advising Form is used to review prior coursework taken under the Liberal Studies Bilingual Concentration and advice on remaining courses under the Multiple Subject Program (see Check List Advising Form).
In order to complete all program requirements, the Bilingual Program Coordinator will certify that each candidate has successfully met the requirements for the Bilingual Authorization. As part of this process, the Bilingual Program Coordinator holds an exit interview after the completion of the candidate’s final semester. The coordinator certifies satisfactory completion of all requirements for bilingual authorization by credential candidates and transmits the Check List Advising Form, as documentation to the KSOEHD Credential Analyst, who sends the formal recommendation to the CA Commission on Teacher Credentialing.
Formative and Summative Assessment
Coursework instructors, field experience coordinators, supervisors continually assess student performance and their completion of criteria established within the program-demonstrating individual candidate competency across TPEs (Teaching Performance Expectations) [see Fresno Assessment of Student Teachers Manual]. Program Coordinators monitor the overall professional development of each candidate in the Multiple Subject Program, checking for competency at midterm and conclusion of each semester [Multiple Subject Supervisor Manual]. The Bilingual Program Coordinator is responsible for both entrance and exit interview process established and utilized to recommend candidates for the Bilingual Authorization and the 2042 preliminary teaching credential.
In reference to the Multiple Subject Program, students are taught TPE-related knowledge and skills, are formatively evaluated, are provided remediation if necessary, then summative evaluated for mastery of TPE knowledge and skills at a beginning teacher level. In all courses and field assignments, candidates receive systematic feedback, including feedback regarding their TPE-related performance, through identified formative assessments and other coursework-embedded assignments, and from fieldwork Master Teachers and university supervisors by way of class observations, competency feedback, and required goal setting/assessment meetings [see Multiple Subject Overview Matrix in Multiple Subject Credential Program Assessment: TPE Matrix in FAST Manual: Multiple Subject Field Work Handbook]. At the summative level, candidates must pass specific FAST tasks (referred to as projects) that are embedded into their fieldwork in order to receive credit for that fieldwork and to move to the next phase of pre-service training. [See FAST Manual: TPE Matrix.] FAST has been approved by the CCTC (California Commission on Teacher Credentialing) as a fair, valid, and reliable assessment system and has been fully implemented as an approved system since July 1, 2008.
When a candidate enrolls in the final student teaching experience, both the master teacher and university supervisor again provides prompt and systematic feedback. Teacher candidates keep journals where reflectivity is encouraged and the university supervisor and/or master teacher has an opportunity to respond. Master Teachers are the primary role models for the student teacher, Master Teachers are the primary role models for the student teacher; however, university supervisors also provide demonstration lessons in some of the programs. As such, supervisors provide consistent feedback in order to improve their instruction. There are also opportunities for supervisors to comment and provide feedback on lesson plans.
Systematic assessment of candidates for readiness to assume daily teaching responsibilities is done by the master teacher and university supervisor. This is an on-going process and culminates with a final assessment. The Supervisors Manual [See Supervisor Manual.] for Multiple Subject provides a systematic process for regular visitations and feedback. University supervisors in EHD 170 (in the case of bilingual candidates are bilingual supervisors) are expected to visit the classroom a minimum of eight times per semester and complete five formal observations of student teachers. Triad conferences are held with the student teacher, university supervisor, and master teacher to document the mid-semester progress and final evaluation. In the event that serious corrective action is needed, a specific procedure is outlined in the Multiple Subject Supervisor Manual and the Multiple Subject Field Work Handbook whereby joint conferences and documentation are required.
Guidance and Coaching
The bilingual university supervisor and the bilingual master teachers share responsibility for guiding, assisting, and evaluation student teacher [see Supervisor Manual and Multiple Subject Field Work Handbook.]. If a student teacher is having difficulties, the university supervisor has several options beginning with more frequent observations and opportunities for feedback. Specific activities are outlined for the student teacher. The supervisor can extend the student teacher's placement to allow time for gaining the specified skills. The supervisor, in collaboration with the bilingual program coordinator and the director of field services, may change the student teacher's placement or require that a placement be repeated.
The bilingual coordinator provides student advisement and support, working collaboratively with the director of field experience in advising student teaching placements and ongoing communication with instructors and supervisors to stay abreast of candidates’ performance. In addition, the bilingual coordinator works towards ensuring courses are meeting expectations for all required assessments, including FAST deadlines and language proficiency exam.
End of Program Verification
At the end of the bilingual student candidate’s program, the multiple subject program review committee oversees the work of all students and reviews evidence of successful program progress and completion for each candidate for the academic year. Evidence will include completion of the Teaching Performance Assessments (FAST) and embedded signature assignments. All of these elements are further aligned to the bilingual program courses articulated in this document.
Concurrently, the bilingual program coordinator verifies the candidate’s satisfactory performance in bilingual student teaching (see EHD 170, Field Study C syllabus) that is supported by a qualified bilingual teacher or equivalent field placement in the appropriate grade level classroom and language experience. For bilingual candidates, who complete student teaching in a bilingual classroom, this verification includes satisfactory evaluations of bilingual student teaching from both school site master teachers and university supervisors. Bilingual program course instructors, university supervisors and school based master teachers will be required to be bilingual and have expertise with bilingual instruction for those in the Spanish Authorization. Every effort will be made to have similar language expertise for the Hmong, however where not possible these candidates will have alternative field placements for “language of emphasis” while meeting the same “student teaching” requirements to ensure they meet all 2042 competencies. Included in the evaluation is the Student Teaching and Final Evaluation Form with signatures of master teacher and university supervisor, this is required to further document competencies for bilingual candidates who participate in bilingual student teaching.
Completion of the bilingual program will require an exit review. This review will consist of the Bilingual Program Coordinator certifying that each candidate has satisfactory met the requirements for the Bilingual Authorization including language proficiency. As such, Spanish and Hmong language candidates must demonstrate appropriate level of language proficiency.
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