Standard 1: Program Design

The design of the professional bilingual teacher preparation program follows from an explicit statement of program philosophy and purpose and is coordinated effectively in accordance with a cohesive design that has a cogent rationale. The program philosophy articulates a clear understanding of the instructional needs of learners in bilingual settings. The sponsoring institution shows a high priority to the program by providing appropriate support for the program and a demonstrated commitment to teacher preparation and to bilingual education. The program has a leadership team whose members are qualified in the areas of teacher preparation and bilingual instruction. The program demonstrates initial and ongoing collaboration with local school districts in order to reflect the needs of teachers serving in bilingual programs at the local and state level. This on-going coordination between the bilingual program and other teacher development programs is designed to strengthen the learning-to-teach continuum for teachers of learners in bilingual classroom. The curriculum is designed around the Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) for Bilingual Methodology and Culture. It provides candidates with a depth of knowledge regarding current research-based theories and research in academic and content literacy in two languages, building upon both SB 2042 and California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL) competencies.  The program shows candidates how to help learners to access the K-12 grade level content instruction and how to provide benchmarks of English Learners’ progress toward meeting standards as defined in the California Curriculum Frameworks (2006).  The design of the program clearly indicates the options for completion of the program in a concurrent model and/or as a post-credential model.

Introduction

California’s Central Valley is one of the fastest growing regions in the state with a larger percent of English language learners.  Between one-quarter and one-third of students in the Central Valley are considered English Learners – a rate that is nearly five times the national average.  Currently, Fresno Unified School District (FUSD) has the fourth largest population of English Learners (ELs), with a total of 25,319 EL in the state.  English Learners represent about 31% of the total FUSD student population.  The largest language group in FUSD is Spanish (64%), Hmong (25%), Khmer (4%), and Lao (3%).  Mastering the English language is critical for these students in order for them to succeed in school. 

The California State University Fresno, Kremen School of Education and Human Development (KSOEHD) Bilingual Authorization Credential Program recognizes that schools need teachers who can communicate with students and their families and serve as a resource to other teachers. In addition, the KSOEHD trains bilingual teacher candidates to have the necessary skills and credentials to teach academic curriculum in primary languages, in this case, bilingual Spanish/English and Hmong/English.  As such, KSOEHD is committed to recruiting and producing quality prospective bilingual teachers.  Furthermore, KSOEHD recognizes and honors the fact that we live in a rich multicultural, global society that respects diversity that makes us a stronger state and nation.  For over 35 years, the campus has prepared bilingual Spanish/English teachers and was the first to develop bilingual Hmong/English teachers.  Currently, KSOEHD is the only campus in California that offers bilingual certification in Hmong.  Majority of our teacher candidates prefer to stay and teach in the San Joaquin region and later return to continue their education degrees at this campus.

The Literacy and Early Education Department (LEE) administers the professional bilingual teacher preparation program.  The Fresno State Program for Bilingual Authorization reflects a purposeful, developmentally designed sequence of coursework, and field experiences that effectively prepare candidates to teach bilingually in K-12 classroom settings.  It is the intent of the KSOEHD to offer a Multiple Subject Preliminary Credential with a bilingual emphasis.  In collaboration with the Multiple Subject Preliminary Credential Program, the CSUF Bilingual Program is focused on developing teacher candidates who have the ability to demonstrate an understanding of language, culture and content in the context of the current realities faced in California schools. In addition it is built upon both SB 2042 and California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL) competencies.  The bilingual authorization program also includes institutional partnerships with the College of Arts and Humanities, and the College of Social Sciences.  The recent collaboration with the Department of Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures will provide the added expertise to offer exams that meet the requirements for the Single Subject 2042 Bilingual Authorization in Spanish.

Philosophy & Purpose

The Kremen School of Education and Human Development (KSOEHD) is a center for academic excellence and collaboration in the fields of education and counseling.  The KSOEHD program philosophy is based on the belief that the purpose of K-12 schooling is to foster values that support life in a democratic and diverse society; to assist students in developing the knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed for successful functioning in a changing, complex, and increasingly interdependent world; to produce students who value learning and have the skills to continue learning throughout their lives; and to develop the unique potential of every student.  The dispositional characteristics encouraged in our programs are collaboration, valuing diversity, critical thinking, ethical professionalism, reflective practice, and life-long learning.  Furthermore, the KSOEHD places considerable emphasis on an educator who can function effectively as a leader in a culturally and linguistically diverse society.

The goals of the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program are congruent with the goals of the Multiple Subject 2040 Credential Program and consonant with the KSOEHD's mission.  Its mission is to recruit and develop ethically informed leaders for classroom teaching, education administration, counseling, and higher education.  This mission is realized through a framework of teaching, scholarship, and service that addresses regional, state, national, and international perspectives.

Support for the Bilingual Teacher Preparation Program

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program is an integral part of KSEOHD under the Multiple Subject Program.  This program holds primary responsibility for faculty hiring; program development and change; and policies and procedures. Programmatic needs are identified through a regular cycle of program reviews instituted by the trustees of the California State University system.  The Dean of the School of Education has given key priority to supporting program development related to bilingual credentials resolving program needs, and giving renewed emphasis to the important place of preparing bilingual/biliterate educators.

In addition, the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program receives significant support from practitioners and administrators in the local education agencies and from the Academic Vice President/Provost at the university.

Figure 1: Pathway for 2042 Multiple Subject Preliminary Credential with Bilingual Reauthorization Credential

Program Design

The sequenced design of Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program is based on a clearly stated rationale that requires bilingual candidates to complete foundational classes and basic content-specific pedagogy coursework while concurrently practicing the application of these concepts and teaching skills in a field placement setting that is aligned with the reading class in which they are enrolled and later in a bilingual setting.  Indicating a supportive program for interested bilingual teacher candidates, a visual pathway description has been established [see Figure 1].  For students entering a 2042 Multiple Subject Preliminary Credential with a Bilingual Reauthorization Credential, the pathway begins with ample announcements about the program in course catalogue and flyers.  The pathway continues with interested student meeting with counselors in the Education Student Services Center and declaring a Bilingual Authorization Concentration as part of their Liberal Studies Blended Concentration Program.  In addition, the Liberal Studies undergraduate major prepares students with subject matter competency.  Individuals demonstrate subject matter competency by passing all sections of the California Subject Examinations for Teachers (CSET).

The Liberal Studies Blended Concentration Program allows undergraduate Liberal Studies students to take specific courses as a concentration as part of their Liberal Studies Program.  The Blended Program blends or integrates three elements - the General Education program, the courses required in the liberal studies major, and the courses required for teacher preparation - which can result in a B.A. in Liberal Studies and a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential or Educational Specialist Credential. For those pursuing a Multiple Subject or Educational Specialist Credential, most of the credential courses may be included in a carefully planned four-year program. Once declared, a student can begin to take the required courses under the Liberal Studies Concentration for either Spanish or Hmong.  The following blended concentration courses are as follows:

Table 1.  Liberal Studies Blended Concentration Program

Spanish Emphasis

Course # Course Title Units 
SPAN 119 Advanced Grammar 3
SPAN 121A Composition A 3
SPAN 134 Spanish in Bilingual Schools 3
CLAS 116 Cultural Change and the Latino 3
    Total Units 12

Hmong Emphasis

Course # Course Title Units
HMONG 100 Intermediate Reading and Composition 3
HMONG 101 Advanced Reading and Composition 3
LEE 129 Hmong in Bilingual Schools: BCLAD 3
ANTH 123 Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia 3
    Total Units 12 

While students are taking their underclass courses, it is recommended that they register and pass the California Basic Educational Skills Test (CBEST) and California Subject Examinations for Teachers (CSET) exams.  Once students have completed their Liberal Studies Program, they will then apply to be accepted into the 2042 Multiple Subjects Credential Program [see Figure 1] and declare their interest in the Bilingual-reauthorization Certification. 

The Multiple Subject Credential Program at California State University, Fresno and its prerequisites include a purposeful, interrelated, developmentally designed sequence of coursework and field experiences that effectively prepares candidates to teach all K-12 students and understand the contemporary conditions of schooling.  Bilingual candidates must fulfill all of the requirements for the Multiple Subject Credential and one additional bilingual course [see Table 2 and 3].  Students will also be required to complete their final student teaching in a bilingual setting.  Following are the required course completion for both Spanish and Hmong Certification.

Table 2.  Course Completion of Bilingual-reauthorization Certification

Spanish Emphasis

Course # Course Title Units
LEE 136 Teaching Content in Spanish 3
EHD 170 Field Study C/ Grades K-8 [students in bilingual placement Spanish] 3

Hmong Emphasis

Course # Course Title Units
LEE 135 Teaching Content in Hmong 3
EHD 170 Field Study C/ Grades K-8 [students in bilingual placement Hmong] 3

Prior to exiting the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program, students will meet with BCLAD Coordinator to review coursework.  Based on recommendation, students will then apply for credential by meeting with credential analyst.  In order for student to apply for the preliminary credential, students must pass the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Reading Instruction Competence Assessment (RICA) state required exams.

Table 3. Multiple Subject Credential Program Sequence of Courses

Phase 1:   

Course # Course Title Units
CI 171 Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design, and Assessment 3
LEE 172 Cultural and Language Context of the Classroom 3
LEE 173 Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 3
EHD 174 Field Study A/ Grades 4-8 3

Phase 2:

Course # Course Title Units
CI 175 Science Instruction and Applied Technology 3
CI 176 Mathematics Instruction and Applied Assessment 3
LEE 177 Teaching Reading and the Arts in K-3 3
EHD 178 Field Study B/ Grades K-3 3

Phase 3:

Course # Course Title Units
SPED 179 Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management 3
EHD 170 Field Study C/ Grades K-8 [BLCAD students in bilingual placements] 3

Table 4. Multiple Subject Credential Program Required Examinations

Required Examinations
California Basic Educational Skills Test - CBEST
California Subject Examinations for Teachers - CSET
Reading Instruction Competence Assessment - RICA
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation – CPR

Leadership Team

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program has a leadership team whose members are qualified in the areas of teacher preparation and bilingual instruction.  Following is a list of the leadership team [attached are their course syllabus and vitas].  Click on name to see Vita.  Click on course name to see syllabus.

Instructors

Debbie Avila SPAN 119
Elsa Castillo SPAN 121 A
Cosme Zaragoza SPAN 134
Phil Gonzales CLAS 116
Stanley Lucero LEE 136
Phong Yang HMONG 100
Phong Yang HMONG 101
Tony Vang LEE 129
Hank Delcore ANTH 123
Tony Vang LEE 135

Supervisors

Laura Alamillo EHD 170
Julio Corrella EHD 170
Tony Vang EHD 170

Coordinator and Dept. Chairs

Teresa Huerta BCLAD Coordinator
Glenn DeVoogd Chair of Literacy and Early Education
Chris Golston Chair of Linguistics
Saúl Jiménez-Sandoval Chair of Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures
Victor Torres Chair of Chicano and Latin American Studies
John Pryor Chair of Anthropology

The Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Program demonstrates initial and ongoing collaboration with local school districts in order to reflect the needs of teachers serving in bilingual programs at the local and state level.  Following is a list of local school district administrators that support the program. 

Maria Maldonado Assistant Superintendent, Department of English Learner Services, Fresno Unified School District
Lisa Benavidez Principal, Ann Leavenworth Elementary, Two-Way Immersion Program, Fresno Unified School District
Misty Her South East Elementary School, Fresno Unified School District
Robb Christopherson Reagan Elementary School, Clovis Unified School District
Terry Hirschfield Principal, Laton Elementary School, Laton Unified School District, Two-Way Immersion Program

This on-going coordination between the bilingual program and other teacher development programs is designed to strengthen the learning-to-teach continuum for teachers of learners in bilingual classroom.  Those programs and representatives are the following:

James Marshall Associate Dean
Robin Chiero Director Curriculum and Instruction
Lisa Nyberg Multiple Subject Coordinator
Janelle Morillo Liberal Studies Coordinator
Janine Quisenberry Director of Professional Field Experiences
Sherri Nakashima Credential Analyst
Ivy Fitzpatrick Credential Admissions Technician

Additional Programs and organizations that also provide support to the Fresno State Spanish/Hmong Bilingual Authorization Credential Program are the following:

•    CSU Mexico Bilingual Elementary Teaching Credential Program with coursework in Guadalajara and Oaxaca [Bi-TEP].
•    California Reading and Literature Project [CRLP]
•    Verso, Perla, Pluma y Flor [CRLP Spanish Writing Institute]
•    KSEOHD International Committee
•    Fresno/Madera CABE/CASBE Chapter Conference co-sponsored by LEE Department
•    Association of Mexican American Educators (AMAE) Fresno Chapter
•    Parent Institute for Quality Education (PIQE) 

Curriculum

Figure 2.  Bilingual Authorization Coursework by Department
The curriculum in the CSUF Bilingual Program is designed around the Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) in the areas of language, bilingual methodology and culture.  The curriculum consists of five courses in each of two primary language programs, Spanish and Hmong [see Tables 1 & 2].   These programs stem from various university departments: Anthropology, Chicano & Latin American Studies, Linguistics, Literacy & Early Education, Modern & Classical Languages and Literatures and School of education and Human Development [see Figure 2].  These courses were either selected or created in order to provide the bilingual candidate with the optimal skills needed to teach effective bilingual children in the Central Valley.  Following is a brief review of the curriculum in the respective courses in the CSUF Bilingual Program [for more in-depth review see course syllabi].

In the area of language, there are three required courses for both the Spanish and Hmong concentration.  For Spanish the required courses are Spanish 119 Advance Grammar, Spanish 121A Composition A, and Spanish 134 Spanish in Bilingual Schools.  The language courses for Hmong concentration are Hmong 100 Intermediate Reading, Hmong 101 Advanced Reading and Composition, and LEE 129 Hmong in Bilingual Schools.  The course curriculum focuses on: grammar review, analysis of grammatical construction, and refinement of writing skills through vocabulary development, spelling, and composition.  Special emphasis is placed on problems created by differences between the spoken and written language.  In addition, courses Spanish 134 and LEE 129 provide focus on language proficiency for bilingual teachers at the elementary level and the development and evaluation of bilingual teaching materials.  It is also important to note that the LEE 172 Cultural and Language Context of the Classroom, which is under the Multiple Subject Program and required course for the bilingual teacher candidate, provides students with an understanding of the role of language (i.e. first and second language acquisition) and it’s impact on learning and teaching.  As such, teacher candidates are expected to acquire an understanding of acquisition theory and instructional strategies for English Learners in the classroom [see LEE 172 syllabus]. 

In the area of bilingual methodology, there is one required course for each of the two programs, LEE 136 Teaching Content in Spanish and LEE 135 Teaching Content in Hmong.  In these courses emphasis is placed on primary language methods and materials used to teach content in bilingual classrooms.  Teacher candidates are taught in-depth knowledge regarding current research-based theories and research in academic and content literacy in two languages, building upon both SB 2042 and California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL) competencies.  In addition, candidates will spend time delivering lessons in the Spanish/Hmong language.  As specified earlier, both LEE 136 and LEE 135 (see course syllabi) address bilingual methodology in the development and evaluation of bilingual materials and in the design of and delivery of instruction.   Students will also deliver lessons in the Spanish/Hmong language as part of this course.  The courses include basic content area instruction in Hmong, evaluation of teaching materials, and conferencing with parents.  Furthermore, in LEE 172 candidates are expected to acquire pedagogical practices based on sound theory and research.  The work of Eugene Garcia (2005), Stephen Krashen, Jim Cummins (1999), John Ogbu (1987) are just a few of the researchers that ground the practices in this course. This research along with others reinforces reinforce this course’s stance that culture and language are closely linked.

In the area of culture, both CLAS 116 Cultural Change and the Latino and ANTH 123 Hmong in Bilingual Schools focus on Latino and Hmong culture within the U.S. experience.  More specifically,  CLAS 116 examines the growing complexity and diversity of the Latino population in the U.S. by analyzing it cultural, political, social, and economic manifestations.  Emphasizes its contributions to the development of a multicultural nation during the late twentieth century.  For ANTHRO 123, the focus is on the political, economic, social, and cultural life of the people of Southeast Asia.  The course is structured around a series of case studies, connected by some broader issues and themes. Students are expected to be conversant in contemporary Southeast Asian life, and aware of the themes and trends that will likely be important to the region in the future.  This course further examines the major effects of culture contact between East and West.

In LEE 172: Cultural and Language Contexts of the Classroom [see LEE 172], candidates become aware of their own cultural perspective through various assignments including weekly Making Connections and a cultural awareness project [see LEE 172].

In the area of field experience, there are three sequential courses required for 2042 Multiple Subject Credential Bilingual Program: EHD 174 Field Study A: Grades 4-8, EHD 178: Field Study B: Grades K-3, and EHD 170 Field Study C: Final Student Teaching [see, Multiple Subject Field Work Handbook].  The final student teaching experience EHD 170 is specifically aligned to the bilingual student teacher candidate.  For example, the EHD 170 Field Study C is a culminating course that involves application of the theory and methods learned in coursework and promotes the candidate’s analysis of his/her own teaching within a bilingual setting.  As such, the field study placement requires full time student teaching five days a week in a bilingual classroom.  Special effort has been made to place bilingual student teachers in dual language programs with qualified bilingual teachers and supervisors.  However, when a bilingual setting is not available, such as bilingual Hmong classrooms, efforts are made to place the bilingual Hmong student teacher with a teacher who is proficient in Hmong.  For bilingual teacher candidates to make progress, it is important that master bilingual teachers and teacher candidates share in all aspects of classroom instruction and management.  Bilingual teacher candidates receive ample time to work with students and to demonstrate the ability to use a variety of methods and techniques (i.e. instruction in the primary language, sheltered instruction [SDAIE/ SIOP].  EHD 170: Field Study C offers continuing opportunities for bilingual teacher candidates to apply what they have learned and to assume responsibilities of full-time teacher.

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