Standard 1: Program Design, Rationale and Coordination

Each program of professional preparation is coordinated effectively in accordance with a cohesive design and sound evidence-based practices relevant to the contemporary conditions of schools. The design must reflect the full range of service delivery options, including general education, and the knowledge and skills to meet the needs of students in the specific areas authorized by the credential. The program has an organizational structure that forms a logical sequence between the instructional components and field work, and that provides for coordination of the components of the program. The program describes a plan that allows for multiple points of entry.

Children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing present a broad range of needs and modality preferences.  Teachers need to be prepared to work in a variety of settings ranging from a self-contained classroom to itinerant positions serving children who are widely distributed, both developmentally and geographically (Marschark and Spencer, 2003; Stewart and Kluwin, 2001).  With that in mind, it is illogical to expect deaf educators to specialize in one teaching methodology.  Fresno State graduates must be able to support major instructional methods and evidenced-based practices in deaf education and early intervention. Additionally, a substantial segment of the deaf education student population is part of the diverse English language learner (EL) cohort  (USDOE, 2004). Teachers must be prepared to meet their unique and complex social and educational needs despite the challenge of also being prepared to address the preferences and needs of deaf children and their families who choose to be a part of the Deaf Community (Andrews, Leigh & Weiner, 2004; Ross, 2001).

Fresno State is able to offer coursework in birth-22 deaf education to address the needs of children with hearing loss through course delivery methods using a combination of Internet and on-campus instruction, service-based courses, and extensive field experiences. The program does this while maintaining requirements for admissions, endorsements, and degrees that reflect university, department, state and national standards of quality. The faculty and the program are highly rated by students for their effective instructional approaches based on an active and ongoing Student Outcomes Assessment Program (SOAP) that has been reviewed by NCATE, California Department of Education and the Council on Education of the Deaf.  Many of the approaches used for teaching on-campus classes are based on McKeachie’s (1999) and Nilson’s (1998) strategies, research and theory for university faculty. Both of these approaches require ongoing reflection and planning by the instructors and continuous course revisions.

Fresno State also promotes the use of The Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education (Chickering & Gamson 1987, 1991), which will provide the rubric for evaluating instructional effectiveness in this project. Required courses will be offered in as a hybrid online course with 80% of the instruction in an online format and 20% in a face to face setting.  All courses were developed through rigorous research-based guidelines required by the U.S. Department of Education’s Title V (CFDA 84.031S) grant for Developing Hispanic-Serving Institutions Program (See Digital Campus, 2002).

The faculty at Fresno State is continuously updating course material to reflect the latest research and evidence-based practices. The program provides a comprehensive curriculum ranging from American Sign Language and Deaf Culture to Speech, Audiology, and Cochlear Implants. In the Seminar courses: Language, Speech, and School Subject courses, theory is taught along with practical application. CDDS 262 Speech for D/HH has a 12-hour field-based component in addition to theoretical instruction.  The language instruction component of the program (CDDS 263) is based primarily on the compilations in texts focusing on research-based practices by Rose, McAnnally, and Quigley (2004), Easterbrooks and Baker (2002), Schirmer (2000), Marschark and Spencer, (2004), and Easterbrooks and Stephensen (2006).  Students are also required to do written literature reviews on the various literacy practices used in deaf education and present them to their classmates using American Sign Language (ASL) as the mode of communication.  Knowledge of linguistics is critical to teaching efficacy in language, particularly with students who are English Learners as are most students who are deaf or hard of hearing (Diaz-Rico 2008; Baker, 2006; Reagan, 1997).

Instruction for the content teaching (CDDS 264), assessment (CDDS 255), and parent education (CDDS 141) portions of the program is also derived from research-based practices. For content methods, the courses rely on the compilations of Stewart and Kluwin (2001), Marschark, Lang, and Albertini (2002), Livingston(1997) and Schirmer (2000). Given the wide diversity of academic skills that are shown in classrooms by children who are D/HH, coursework particularly focuses on differentiated instruction practices in CDDS 264 based on the work of Tomlinson and Eidson (2003) and Tomlinson (2001).  

Assessment is an integral part of all of the methods coursework but there is also a course specifically focused on this topic (CDDS 255) based on the work of Spragins, Blennerhassett, and Mullen (1998), and Traxler (1998) of Gallaudet Research Institute regarding the use of specific assessment measures with children who are D/HH. Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) as developed by Deno (1985, 1992, 2003) and shown to be scientifically valid and reliable, is one of the focuses of this course.  A review of CBM used with D/HH students (Rose, 2007) has indicated that CBM measures can be a valid and reliable assessment. Instruction is also provided on issues related to special education assessment based on the Pierangleo and Giuliani (2006) text including legal issues, determination of student disability, bias in testing, formal and informal assessment methods. 

For parent education, (CDDS 141), focus is on the works of Ogden (1996) on working with parents of children who are deaf in general and Christensen and Delgado (2000) especially for diverse populations. Early intervention practices based on the SKI-HI Institute family-centered programming for infants and young children with hearing loss (Watkins, 2004). Students in this course are also required to learn about ethical practices in deaf education based on the works assembled by Beattie (2001).

Audiology/Aural Rehabilitation (CDDS 202) and Speech (CDSS 262) courses follow the guidelines of the joint American Speech Language and Hearing Association (ASHA) and the Council on Education of the Deaf (CED) report regarding the research-base on knowledge and skills for teachers of the deaf in development of communicative and linguistic competence (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2004).  Texts used in these courses includes Seewald & Tharpe, (2011). Comprehensive handbook of pediatric audiology and Tye-Murray, N. (2009). Foundations of aural rehabilitation: Children, adults and their family members (3rd ed.).  Additional sources are Spencer and Marschark (2006) and McClatchie and Therres (2003), Tye-Murray (2004), and on cochlear implants by Chute and Nevins (2006) and Nussbaum (2010).

Candidate will demonstrate sign language competency on the Sign Language Proficiency Interview in ASL, established by the North Carolina American Sign Language Teachers Association (NC ASLTA). The SLPI: ASL interviews are conducted through videophone and recorded for the raters.

The Deaf Education Credential program at Fresno State has been a campus-based program encompassing Communicative Disorders and Deaf Studies (CDDS) courses, Kremen School of Education and Human Development (KSOEHD) credential courses.  In response to Deaf Education programs being discontinued at San Francisco State University and San Jose State University in the last 5 years and numerous requests for an online option to pursue an Education Specialist: Deaf and Hard of hearing Credential, the Deaf Education faculty with support of the CDDS Department, Dean of the College of Health and Human Services, Dean of KSOEHD, Graduate Dean, Associate Provost, and Provost of the University are seeking to provide multiple avenues for students to receive the training needed to become credentialed teachers for deaf and hard of hearing students. 

The undergraduate degree in Deaf Education will not change and will continue as an option within the CDDS Department of the College of Health and Human Services. Local students will continue to take credential classes within the KSOEHD Multiple Subject credential program and will participate in the hybrid online graduate level courses with all other Deaf Education credential candidates.

A proposal to the Western Association of School and Colleges (WASC) to begin offering all CDDS graduate level courses in Deaf Education in a hybrid online model (80% online and 20% face to face), will be submitted in the Spring 2012 semester with hybrid online classes to begin as WASC approval is granted.  As there are not currently any DHH approved credential programs at universities in Northern California, it is anticipated students from a greater geographic area will have access to the Deaf Education program at Fresno State.

All preliminary Education Specialist: DHH credential candidates (local or online) will complete graduate level Deaf Education coursework, elementary or secondary credential coursework, have basic sign language skills, and will earn a BA degree in Deaf Education or will complete prerequisite course requirements in addition to the graduate level courses. 

Candidates will begin the Education Specialist: DHH Credential program with a variety of academic backgrounds.

A.    Candidates with a Multiple or Single Subject credential and a BA degree in Deaf Education will take 200 level (graduate) Deaf Education courses in the Communicative Disorders and Deaf Studies (CDDS) department.

B.     Candidate without a Multiple Subject Credential or Single Subject Credential must complete one of the following options prior to or during their graduate studies:

      1.  complete a Multiple Subject or Single Subject credential program with CLAD certification in their home geographic area,

      2.   complete a Multiple Subject or Single Subject credential with CLAD certification program offered online through the CalStateTEACH program,

      3.   complete the on-campus KSOEHD Phase I and Phase II Multiple Subject credential courses

C.     Candidates with a BA degree in Deaf Education will begin taking 200 level Deaf Education graduate courses in the first semester and credential classes from one of the credential options listed above.

D.    Candidates with a BA degree in a field related to Deaf Education will be required to complete prerequisite course requirements prior to taking 200 level courses and will take credential classes from one of the credential options listed above. 

To enter the Education Specialist: Deaf and Hard of Hearing credential program, students will:

1.      satisfy all the graduate study application requirements of the CDDS Department

2.      demonstrate basic sign language skills,

3.      meet Deaf Education and credential program prerequisite course requirements

Required CDDS courses for the Preliminary DHH Credential

CDDS 95 Introduction to Speech and Language Development (3)
CDDS 114 or equivalent course, Education of Exceptional Children (3)
CDDS 139 Deaf Culture (3)
CDDS 141 Education of Deaf Children and Their Parents (3)
CDDS 200 Graduate Studies and Research in Communicative Disorders and Deaf Studies (3)
CDDS 201 Interviewing and Counseling in Communicative Sciences and Disorders (3)
CDDS 202 Aural Rehabilitation (3)
CDDS 255 Seminar: Assessment of Deaf & Hard of Hearing Students (3)
CDDS 260 Advanced Clinical Practice: Deaf & Hard of Hearing Children & Youth (2)
CDDS 262 Seminar: Speech for Deaf & Hard of Hearing Children & Youth (3)
CDDS 263 Seminar: Language for Deaf & Hard of Hearing Children & Youth (3)
CDDS 264 Seminar: School Subjects for Deaf & Hard of Hearing Children & Youth (3)
CDDS 258 Student Teaching: Deaf and Hard of Hearing (6) and
CDDS 268 Externship with Deaf Children or Youth (6), or
CDDS 258 Student Teaching: Deaf and Hard of Hearing (12)

Required Credential courses for candidates who do not have a Multiple Subject credential. Equivalent coursework is available for a Single Subject option.

LEE 172 Cultural and Language Context of the Classroom (3)
LEE 173 Teaching Reading and Social Studies in Grades 4-8 (3)
LEE 177 Teaching Reading and The Arts in K-3 (3)
CI 171 Understanding the Learner, Instructional Design, and Assessment (3)
CI 175 Science Instruction and Applied Technology (3)
CI 176 Mathematics Instruction and Applied Assessment (3)
EHD 174 Field Study A/Grades 4-8 (2)
EHD 178 Field Study B/Grades K-3 (2)

CDDS = Communicative Disorders and Deaf Studies
CI = Curriculum and Instruction
EHD = Education Interdepartmental Programs and Courses
LEE = Literacy and Early Education

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