Standard 5

Comprehensive Prevention and Early Intervention for Achievement

The program provides candidates with opportunities and experiences to display an understanding of the factors that contribute to successful learning. In order to help pupils attain high learning goals, the program provides candidates with the knowledge to identify problems in their earliest stages and to implement prevention and early intervention strategies for addressing these problems. The program requires candidates to demonstrate knowledge of classroom, school, family, and community factors that support pupil learning and to develop skills to assist pupils who experience learning difficulties.

Introduction

Candidates in this program are accorded opportunities and experiences to display an understanding of the nature of learning, enhancing factors and impeding factors related to learning, identification of students at risk of learning difficulties and strategies and intervention for addressing these problems.

CI 285, Seminar in Advanced Educational Psychology, has the specific goal of providing candidates with the knowledge of the nature of learning, factors that promote the learning process, factors that impede the learning process and implications for instructional and intervention strategies.  The knowledge to identify problems in their earliest stages and how to implement prevention and early intervention strategies for addressing these problems is a component integrated throughout this course.

In CI 285, candidates are helped to hone their skills in identifying and remediating pupils’ learning and social-emotional problems.  For example, when candidates study Piaget and Constructivism, they are asked to identify learning challenges, and helping strategies for children whose performance differs from that of same age peers along developmental stages beginning with the preoperational child.

Candidates also become familiar with curriculum adaptation to assist learners having difficulty learning for a variety of reasons (Inclusion and atypical learners).  Adaptation involves different design in quantity, time, level of support, input, difficulty, output, participation, alternate goals, and substitute curriculum.

Within the framework of Emotional Intelligence (Daniel Goleman), candidates consider social-emotional development and programs supportive of student resiliency.  The notion that all children can improve empathy, anger management and impulse control is preventative of maladaptive development is processed in class.  Class activities are designed to explore programs that school counselors are often asked to implement.  Class assignments are designed to facilitate candidates to apply their learning in their field placement and collect data on the implementation of prevention and intervention strategies that they design.

Coun 206 Counseling through the Lifespanexplores developmental issues and life events from infancy through old age and their effects on individual, couples, and family relationships.  Candidates are required to complete a Child/adolescent observation or interview and write-up.  To complete this assignment, candidates will observe a child or interview an adolescent and write up the results.  They are instructed to identify any circumstances or difficulties that may increase the risk of learning problems or otherwise have a negative effect on achievement; and include suggestions for prevention or early intervention.

Factors to Consider

1. Knowledge base relating to pupil learning:

Candidates are introduced to a range of psychological theories relating to pupils’ development and learning in CI 285.  Integral in each theory are concepts that involve the nature of learning, factors that promote the learning process, factors that impede the learning process and implications for instructional and intervention strategies.

To ensure that they understand these concepts, candidates are given quizzes on the content area and are asked to make presentations on text material with colleagues.   They are also given opportunities to apply their knowledge in analyzing research articles, and conducting a mini-research project.  Content areas are listed below:

CI 285

Objective 2: Students have the opportunities to identify psychological principles that operate in human learning.

Objective 3: Students have the opportunities to become more conversant with a variety of psychological theories implicated in development, learning and design/implementation of instruction or intervention. Such as:

  • Behavioral Learning Theories
  • Cognitive-behavioral Theories
  • Interactional Theories of Learning
  • Biological Bases of Learning and Behavior
  • The Neurophysiology of Learning
  • Theories of Motivation
  • Issues of Language
  • Culturally-based Theories of Learning
  • Constructivism
  • Principles of Assessment
  • Professional Ethics

Assignment: CurriculumA

2.  Knowledge of institutional and environmental factors on learning:

Besides understanding theories of learning, candidates are also given opportunities to identify institutional and environmental factors that affect learning.

Coun 203: Objective 1: Identify the effect of cultural and ethnic factors upon academic assessment and achievement.

Assignment: AsssessmentA

Coun 206:

Objective 6: Identify the effects of family dynamics, family life cycle events, and socioeconomic factors on development.

Assignment: LifespanR

Coun 233: Objective 6: Understands family development and the life cycle, sociology of the family, family phenomenology, contemporary families, family wellness, families and culture, aging and family issues, family violence, and related family concerns

Assignment: TheraplayA

Coun 240: Topics include:

  • Emotional, social, and relational aspects of support for children with special needs and their parents and siblings
  • Assessing of Family’s Total Reality of Strengths and Needs
  • Collaboration and Partnership (School Support Services)
  • Community Support Services for Parents & Families
  • Academic Intervention Programs/Psychosocial Aspects of Dev.
  • Support Services to Assist Parents & Families in Transition Planning & Programming
  • Family Stories Illustrating School-Based Support for Learning Disabilities

Assignment: ExceptionalA

3.  Knowledge and skills in identification of students at risk of learning problems:

Candidates have opportunities to develop skills in identifying students at risk of learning problems through developing assessment plans such as observation, data collection and result interpretation and learning about characteristics of at-risk students.

 4. Knowledge of assessment procedures

CI 285: Objective 4: Identify a context for brief intervention, develop an assessment plan, collect data, interpret results, and describe implications for planning and change.

Assignment: CurriculumA

 5. Knowledge of the characteristics of at-risk pupils

Coun 203:

This course equips candidates with the understanding of characteristics of students at risk of learning problems.  This understanding is necessary to prepare candidates to identify students in school settings.

Objective 3: Describe methods and theories related to the emotional, intellectual, and physical characteristics of typical and atypical students.

Assignment: AsssessmentA

Coun 233:

This course provides candidates with the experience of analyzing, evaluating, and modifying treatment plans for children and adolescents.  Activities include child observation, and case study.  In the process of identifying at risk students, candidates are asked to consider equity issues and legal and ethical issues.

Objective 6: Understands family development and the life cycle, sociology of the family, family phenomenology, contemporary families, family wellness, families and culture, aging and family issues, family violence, and related family concerns.

Assignment:

The group theory presentation will ask you to examine in depth issues related to children/adolescence where issues of violence are present in their lives.  Each group will focus on some different aspect of children and violence.  The six areas of group presentations are:  Children and physical abuse, children and sexual abuse, children and neglect/emotional abuse, adolescents and gang involvement, adolescents and date rape, minors and their parents’ domestic violence.

Coun 249: Candidates are required to complete the following activities in their placement:

  1. Identify the gifted, retarded, and emotional child with adjustment difficulties
  2. Identify children with ability in art, music, reading, arithmetic and other academic areas
  • Identify at risk students who may be potential drop-outs
  • Participate in student assessment in collaboration with other school personnel
  • Help students adjust to the school environment
  • Work with students who have developed emotional and/or behavioral problems
  • Work with students who have difficulties with learning
  • Work with students who may be potential drop-outs
  • Help a student set up a study plan at home/ school
  • Help a child adjust to peers/ parents/ teachers 

All the above activities are required in order that candidates can apply their knowledge in the identification and remediation of pupils having difficulties with learning and development.

6.  Knowledge of methods and techniques for resolving conflicts

Candidates have opportunities to develop treatment plans that address conflict resolution and crisis intervention in school settings.

Coun 233: Objective 3: Acquired therapeutic skills necessary for working with children and families will be demonstrated through formulation of accurate treatment plans that address clinical issues such as:

  • conduct issues
  • gang involvement
  • child abuse
  • school violence

Assignment: TheraplayA

Coun 241: Objecive 3: Able to identify ways a counselor provides counseling services to students including individual counseling, classroom guidance, responsive support services.

Topics include:

  • Working with students in crisis;
  • Working with exceptional students in the school setting
  • Working with non-college bound students
  • Working with at-risk students

Assignment: OrganizationA

Coun 242:

Objective 2: Develop and apply methods of consultation services to include conflict

resolution, team consultation procedures, classroom management skills for teachers, school discipline models and strategies for teachers.

Assignment: AdvocacyA

Coun 249: Objective 3: Apply knowledge of learning theory in an approved

elementary school, middle/high school setting.

Assignment: FieldworkA

7. Knowledge of promoting positive and supportive relationships with pupils 

Coun 242addresses consultation and advocacy models that are designed to promote positive and supportive relationships between pupils and their parents, teachers, and school personnel.  Candidates have opportunities to study different consultation models and to demonstrate their knowledge of these models by choosing a specific model to respond to vignettes involving pupils in school settings.  They are also required to develop workshops for parents, teachers, or school administrators on topics relating to improvement of pupils’ learning and development. 

8. Knowledge of the effects of grade retention on achievement, learning, and social and emotional development 

Coun 240addresses the experiences of children with special needs.  Candidates are required to work with parents who have children with special needs.  Through this process, candidates gain first hand experience of how special needs such as learning disabilities may impact children’s achievement, learning, and social and emotional development.  Grade retention is one of the potential situations facing children with special needs.

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