Standard 21

Personal and Social Development

The program provides candidates with the opportunity to apply knowledge and understanding to the theories, concepts, processes, skills and practices required for successful personal and social development. Candidates are able to plan, organize and implement programs that enable pupils to acquire knowledge, attitudes and interpersonal skills that help them understand and respect themselves and others, make decisions, set goals and take necessary action to achieve goals, and to understand and develop safety and survival skills.

Factors to consider:

Knowledge of pupils’ personal and social development

Candidates have the opportunity to acquire content knowledge of the theories, concepts, and processes for successful personal and social development and process skills in applying such knowledge by taking the following courses:

 a.   Content knowledge:

Coun 174:

Objective 3: Recognize relational conditions required in establishing an effective therapeutic alliance.

Objective 6: Utilize counseling theories and knowledge to gain perspective on his/her personal life experiences.

Coun 200: Objective 5: Compare and contrast counseling techniques appropriate for various client populations, including multicultural and social equity populations.

Coun 201: Objective 3: Apply counseling/psychological theory and data to cross-cultural communication. The graduate student will identify significant communication and relationship patterns that may impede or enhance the cross-cultural counseling interaction process. Candidates also gather information and gain sociohistorical understanding regarding minority populations in the United States.

Coun 202: Objective 8: To deepen the student’s knowledge of how core conditions and appropriate techniques are used to establish effective interpersonal communications within groups.

Coun 206: Objective 1: Understand and discuss various developmental models relative to the counseling process.

b.  Skills in nurturing successful personal and social development of pupils

To successfully complete the PPS program, counseling candidates must demonstrate that they can recognize and apply core clinical skills which include empathy, respect, genuineness, concreteness, immediacy, confrontation and self disclosure. A brief overview of thecore clinical skills is as follows:

  • Empathy is demonstrated when the helper responds with accuracy to the helpee’s deeper as well as surface feelings.
  • Respect refers to the helper’s caring deeply for the human potential of the helpee and communicating a commitment to enabling the helpee to actualize his/her potential.
  • Concreteness refers to the helper facilitating a direct expression of all personally relevant feelings and experiences in concrete and specific terms.
  • Genuineness is demonstrated when the helper is being him/herself and employing genuine responses constructively.
  • Self-disclosure is demonstrated when the helper discloses feelings surrounding a certain content.
  • Confrontation refers to the helper highlighting the helpee’s discrepancies in a sensitive and perceptive manner whenever they appear.
  • Immediacy refers to the helper’s direct and explicit manner of relating the helpee’s expressions of him/herself in the “here-and-now.”

Candidates’ competence in apply core clinical skills in individual and group counseling will facilitate pupils’ personal and social development in the following aspects:

  • awareness of their strengths, assets, personal values, beliefs and attitudes.
  • expression of thoughts, beliefs, and emotions.
  • exploration of options and alternatives to problems in their situations.
  • identification of their goals, development of plans and initiation of actions toward their goals.   This includes an understanding of choice and consequence, and personal responsibility in decision making.
  • understanding of personal boundaries.
  • development of empathy and understanding toward other people.
  • communication skills with others.

The core clinical conditions in counseling are crucial skills that nurture pupils’ personal and social development. This program provides a lot of opportunities for candidates to demonstrate these skills. Candidates gain self-awareness about their counseling skills through feedback from peers and instructors.

Coun 174 requires students to experience counseling in the role of client.

Coun 200 requires students to practice counseling skills through role-plays with peers.

Coun 208 requires students to practice counseling skills through conducting counseling sessions with selected clients.

Coun 202 requires students to describe how core conditions and appropriate techniques are used to establish effective interpersonal communications within groups.

Coun 249requires students to provide individual and group counseling to pupils at elementary, middle/high school settings.

Developing programs to promote pupils’ personal and social development and address problems that may pose a threat to their personal and social development

Besides equipping candidates with counseling skills to promote pupils’ personal and social development, this program also provides candidates with the necessary training in identifying and developing programs that promote pupils’ personal and social development.

Coun 240: Required activities:

Candidates are each required to work closely with parent(s) who have a pupil showing signs of problems. They will identify the developmental and educational needs of the pupil and his/her family. Upon understanding their needs, candidates are asked to identify programs that can address the pupil’s problems and needs.

Coun 241: Objective 1: Familiar with major philosophical and theoretical approaches to coordinating and supervision of counseling programs at elementary, middle and high school levels. Topics include:

  • Working with Students in a Crisis;
  • Working with Non-college Bound Students;
  • Working with Students who are the Victims of Violence;
  • Working with Exceptional Students in the School Setting.

Required activities:

Students are required to write a research paper on successful programs, or program analysis. They are required to respond to a vignette by applying the models relating to Organization of Counseling Services.

Coun 242:Objective 1: Develop methods of working with school staff and parents which include planned prevention programs to help alleviate school failure and promote ways of increasing pupil successes K-12 school settings.

Objective 2: Develop and apply methods of consultation services to include conflict resolution, team consultation procedures, classroom management skills for teachers, school discipline models and strategies for teachers.

Required activities:

Students are required to work as a consulting group and develop a program or curriculum that addresses the above issues.

Coun 249:

Objective 1: Apply individual & group counseling skills to students in an approved school setting.

Objective 2: Apply knowledge of human behavior to students in an approved elementary school setting.

Required activities:

Students are required to develop a program or curriculum that addresses pupils’ needs in an approved school setting.

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