Program Design, Rationale and Coordination
The program is coordinated effectively in accordance with a cohesive design that has a cogent rationale. Foundation and theoretical courses precede and are designed to be taken prior to more specialized and advanced courses.
1. Organizational Structure
1. A. Coordination of the administrative components of the program
The organizational structure for the Pupil Personnel Services in School Counseling (PPS) rests with the policies, bylaws and procedures vested in the Kremen School of Education and Human Development (KSOEHD) at the California State University, Fresno (CSUF). The Dean and Director of Teacher Education of KSOEHD serves as the Chief Administrative Officer and two Associate Deans carry out policies and procedures. The Department of Counseling, Special Education and Rehabilitation abides by the policies, bylaws and procedures of the School when implementing the PPS credential program.
The full-time faculty in counselor education nominates one of their faculty members to serve as the Counselor Education Program Coordinator who coordinate different counseling programs. The Counselor Education Program Coordinator works closely with the Dean of the School and the Department Chair, attends administrative meetings called by the Dean, the Associate Deans, and/or the Department Chair, and carries the intent of the counseling faculty to such meetings.
The Department of Counseling, Special Education and Rehabilitation also has a PPS
Coordinator appointed by the School Dean. The PPS Coordinator is in direct contact
with the Commission on Teacher Credentialing and keeps faculty informed of changes
and new items of interest.
New program proposals and/or program changes are initiated by faculty and then presented
by the Program Coordinator to the University Advanced Credential Programs Committee.
This committee reviews the changes and forwards its recommendations to the Dean.
After review and approval, the Dean submits the changes, such as the addition or deletion
of a course or a change in course content, to the university graduate community for
approval. The development of a new program or program changes progress through the
university approval process, including the Vice President for Academic Affairs, appropriate
committees, Academic Senate and President, before being sent to the Commission on
All procedures for admission, advisement, candidate assessment and program evaluation
are written and approved by a faculty review committee composed of the entire full
time faculty of the counselor education component of the department. The Associate
Dean and his/her staff provide a system for distributing materials to candidates,
keeping files on all candidates and completing the necessary paperwork needed in the
matriculation of students. When a student has completed all coursework for the credential,
a final faculty review is held, clearing the candidate. The Credential Analyst completes
all paperwork for the application for a credential from the State.
1. B. Organizing structure for instructional components
The curriculum for the PPS credential in School Counseling consists of forty-eight (48) semester units that provide the knowledge base and necessary skills for the preparation of school counselors. Each candidate must complete three units of two prerequisite courses before entering the main program. These courses include Coun 174, Introduction to Counseling and ERA 153, Educational Statistics. Prerequisite requirements are outlined in each course description. This information assists students in planning for the course of study. Advisors also help students plan a course of study that provides a logical sequence of course offerings. The following twenty-two units of the curriculum provide students with the foundation in the counseling profession:
Coun 200, Counseling Techniques;
Coun 201, Seminar in Multicultural Counseling;
Coun 202, Seminar in Group Counseling;
Coun 203, Seminar in Assessment in Counseling;
Coun 206, Counseling through the Lifespan;
Coun 208, Practicum in Counseling; and
Coun 220, Seminar in Career Development Theory.
The rest of the twenty-six units provide students with the specialization in K-12 Counseling:
Coun 150, Laws Related to Children;
Coun 233, Seminar in Therapeutic Methods with Children, Adolescents, and Their Families;
Coun 240, Seminar in Counseling Parents of Exceptional Children and Their Parents;
Coun 241, Seminar in Organization of Counseling Services;
Coun 242, Seminar in Parent Education, Pupil Advocacy, and Consultation;
CI 285, Seminar in Advanced Educational Psychology;
Coun 249, Field Practice in School Counseling
1. C. Coordination of the administrative components of the program
The following documents are prepared and approved by the faculty review committee for each candidate:
- Each candidate must apply to the University for post-baccalaureate status.
- Each candidate must make a formal application to the program by completing an admissions packet. The packet contains requirements for entering the School Counseling program along with the requirements established by the Division of Graduate Studies for a student entering a graduate program of study.
- When a candidate has made an application to the program, he/she is reviewed by the Faculty Review Committee through the use of a rating form prepared by the committee. Interviews with applicants are conducted when needed.
- When a candidate has been accepted into the program, he/she is assigned an advisor from the full time faculty. The student is informed in writing of the name of their advisor and is asked to meet with that advisor concerning the planning of the program.
- During the COUN 208, Practicum in Individual Counseling, the student’s performance is evaluated through the Counseling Program’s Clinical Review Process. The Clinical Review Committee is made up of faculty members who are teaching practicum in counseling. Students are rated on academic factors and counselor skills and traits. They need to have a 3.0 or above average Counselor Traits Score to pass. Once the student passes the clinical review, he/she can take advanced courses in counseling practice.
The candidate is asked to fill out a Program Completion Form at the end of the course of study. The courses are all listed with an entry for the semester and year of completion, the units taken and the grade received; if there is an equivalent course used to complete the program, it is written in by the course being covered. The student must also show he/she holds a teaching credential or has a Certificate of Clearance from the State of California and has documented evidence of passing the CBEST.
2. Effective Coordination
2. A. Coordination of Faculty and Staff
The Department of Counseling, Special Education and Rehabilitation is a place where good rapport has been established among all faculty and staff members. Through the PPS credential Program Coordinator, communication is maintained with other schools and departments on campus. Following are some examples of the way in which such coordinating efforts are maintained:
- There are four departments in the KSOEHD and a direct working relationship among departments is part of the overall plan of the school. The PPS credential Program Coordinator meets with other coordinators in the School, primarily through participation on the School Graduate Committee and the Advanced Credential Programs Committee, and receives information from the Dean and Associate Deans regarding policy, planning and program revision. When a course is offered in the counseling section, every effort is made to select an instructor from the full time faculty of the school to fill such a need. All efforts are made internally to insure that the School Counseling program is in line with the school's mission in education. All program faculties meet regularly, and all School faculty members meet together monthly through the KSOEHD Faculty Assembly.
- Faculty maintain a close relationship with the Director of the Instructional Technology and Resource Center (INTERESC) in ordering new media materials and maintaining equipment needed for course offerings.
- A working relationship exists with the International Students Office, Career Development Center, Counseling Center, and Testing Office at CSUF. The program coordinator exchanges ideas with these offices that are applicable to students in the PPS program. These resources are listed in the Student Handbook.
- The Rehabilitation Counseling Program, an integral part of the Department of Counseling, Special Education and Rehabilitation, provides leadership and input related to current practices in the field of rehabilitation for all counseling students. As part of the counseling program, the rehabilitation program can provide courses that add to the PPS credential program, should students require or need further input.
- There is a close relationship, both in the school and in the university, between administrators of research activities and the school faculty.
- To present the needs of the school and the PPS program at the university level, every effort is made to place faculty members from the Department of Counseling, Special Education and Rehabilitation on university-wide committees. Examples of such committee membership include: Personnel Committee, Equity Committee, Learning Assistance Subcommittee, Graduate Committee, Budget Committee, Academic Policy & Planning Committee, and the Academic Senate.
A continuous effort is made each academic year to keep the faculty in the Department of Counseling, Special Education and Rehabilitation well informed as to grants, conferences, special task forces, and other types of input systems which will integrate thinking and provide growth experiences for faculty. The KSOEHD, based on its vision statement and model for instructional growth, provides strong support for such endeavors.
School’s Theme, Mission and Vision
Theme: “Making a Difference in a Diverse Society: Leadership for a New Millennium.”
Vision: The School of Education and Human Development is committed to developing the knowledge, skills and values for education leadership in a changing, diverse and technologically complex society.
Mission: The Mission of the School of Education and Human Development is to educate students to become teachers, administrators, counselors, and educational specialists to provide for the educational needs of children and adults, with special attention to diversity and equity.
The PPS students take core courses along with students majoring in Marriage, and Family
Therapy and students pursuing careers in higher education. This facilitates the experience
of interprofessional collaboration.
Document: Course Requirement
2. B. Coordination with Local School Districts
A strong relationship exists between the counseling faculty and local school districts for the training of school counselors. Schools in five county areas offer field practice training sites for the counseling program. These five counties include: Fresno, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, and Tulare County. The coordinator for field placement visits schools in these counties in order to coordinate the placement of fieldwork students.
In the area of field practice, the program and the local schools and school districts maintain strong communication. Through the PPS program, counseling students provide field practice hours to elementary, middle and high school sites each semester. The field placement coordinator meets with school officials, discusses contracts and provides coordinated supervision between the University and local schools. Each student in the field practice receives an evaluation from the on‑site supervisor at the completion of the assignment.
3. Overall design of the program
3. A. Rationale for the Pupil Personnel Services Program
The faculty of counselor education at CSUF, have developed the following rationale for the PPS Program:
School counselors function in a wide range of settings, including elementary, middle, junior high, secondary and post secondary schools as well as vocational and technical colleges, community colleges, private and government agencies, adult education centers, and other institutions in which human growth and development is a prime concern. The faculties recognize the statement from the American Counseling Association that points out services will vary in accordance with the educational and developmental level of the students, known needs, and existing conditions. As a result of these needs and conditions, every effort is made to provide information, training and professional leadership for students in the program so that they may provide assistance to pupils in four important areas. These four areas include: personal, social, educational, and career development. The primary goal of this training is the integration of knowledge and research to further the development of the individual student in the Department of Counseling, Special Education and Rehabilitation.
3. B. Philosophy Statement
A major goal of education is to prepare pupils to become literate and responsible
citizens. Educators have an obligation to promote personal growth and to develop
critical thinking skills so that pupils become caring family members and motivated
workers. Educators recognize that in addition to intellectual challenges, pupils
encounter personal, social, economic, and institutional challenges. Strategies are
essential to address these challenges, promote success, and prevent educational failure.
Credentialed pupil personnel services specialists are school counselors, school psychologists, school social workers, and child welfare and attendance supervisors. They are educated to be pupil advocates and to provide prevention and intervention strategies that remove barriers to learning. These professionals, in partnership with other educators, parents and the community, maintain high expectations for all pupils, facilitate pupils reaching their highest potential, foster optimum teaching and learning conditions, and prevent school failure.
California's pupils live in a dynamic society with a diversity of cultures and changing values. They need educational environments that prepare them to function in complex, global, and diverse multicultural communities. The needs of pupils demand that pupil personnel services specialists and others work together as a team to provide comprehensive, coordinated programs and services on behalf of all pupils and their families.
3. C. Knowledge Base for Pupil Personnel Services
The KSOEHD adopted a basic theme for establishing a knowledge base and curricular design for all credentialing programs in the school: Making a Difference in a Diverse Society. The Reflective Collaborative Leader model is incorporated within this theme for the PPS Credential Program. This model incorporates four components in the knowledge base:
- Philosophical and Ideological Dimension;
- Cognitive and Reflective Dimension;
- Integration and Application of Knowledge Dimension; and
- Diversity Dimension.
Philosophical and Ideological Dimension
In the philosophical and ideological dimension, counseling candidates are exposed
to historical and contemporary philosophies of education, psychology, learning theories,
developmental theories and models which might be used in counseling. InCOUN 174, Introduction to Counseling, students are introduced to basic counseling theories
which include the Person Centered Theory of Rogers, Existential work of May, Perls'
Gestalt work, psychodynamic work of Freud and Adler, and Cognitive Behavioral work
of Skinner and Lazarus.
Also included in this dimension is the requirement that students attend six counseling
sessions that are sponsored by the Department of Counseling, Special Education and
Rehabilitation. This experience helps students to recognize relational conditions
required in establishing a counseling relationship. Students are exposed to problematic
situations in which they can experiment, question what has been studied and be given
the opportunity to search for their own answers. Based on this philosophical and
ideological base, the student will utilize the information and research findings to
gain perspective about his/her personal life experience. In addition, the student
in counseling will begin to understand that in a counseling relationship the counselor
serves as a facilitator, provides a risk‑free environment for learning, and becomes
a part of guiding a client through a journey of self discovery.
Cognitive and Reflective Dimension‑Making Connections between Theory and Practice Through Reflection
The Cognitive and Reflective Dimension facilitates the development of a counselor who will be able to plan, organize and analyze the contact with clients, both in individual and group situations. The faculty in the Counselor Education Program believes that counseling candidates must be taught how to recognize and to apply core clinical skills that include empathy, respect, genuineness, concreteness, immediacy, confrontation and self-disclosure. The preparation of reflective counselors is a necessary step for later success in the counseling program.
Twenty-two units of the curriculum provide students with the foundation in the counseling
profession. These units include COUN 200 and COUN 208. In COUN 200, Counseling Techniques, the students are introduced to the use and evaluation of
basic responding skills. In COUN 208, Counseling Practicum, in a controlled and supervised environment, counseling students
have an opportunity to demonstrate their counseling skills with clients. Students
have a lot of opportunities to reflect on their experiences in counseling.
Reflection serves a useful purpose in that it leads a person, both client and counselor,
to think of feelings and ideas being expressed as a part of one's self. Making a
connection between theory and practice is pertinent. Student counselors are encouraged
to think objectively and analytically with regard to the goals, actions, and the environment
in which counseling is taking place.
From this reflective dimension, supervisors and teachers in the counselor education
program hold regular seminars and individual conferences with counseling students
to offer them the opportunity to reflect on and analyze their learning process connected
with counseling. In addition, it is the goal of the counselor educators at CSUF to
help our students to become reflective professionals and as a result of that goal,
require them to reflect on their experiences in the program. Within the structure
contained in this dimension counseling students are reminded that reflection and cognition
are positive life long goals and are worthy to be practiced as professionals in the
field of counseling.
Integration and Application of Knowledge Dimension - Theory to Practice
The Integration and Application of the Knowledge dimension focuses on two items: teaching
specific techniques to be used in counseling, and teaching the theories, the subject
matter that will cover areas to be implemented in practicum, and field experiences.
For example, in the counseling curriculum, students gain knowledge of contemporary
and emerging models for counseling and have the opportunity to demonstrate their emerging
counseling skills. The counseling student is exposed to several perspectives from
which data may be gathered: Individual Counseling, Career Development; Assessment;
Group Counseling; Multicultural Counseling; Developmental Counseling, Parent Education
In order to integrate and apply these perspectives to school experiences, the student
is required to enroll in and complete field experiences in both elementary and middle/high
school counseling. Theory is applied through the assignment of students to real life
settings such as schools, agencies, and institutions of higher education in which
the skills learned in the curriculum are used to complete the credential training
process. Theory, from the start of the coursework, is designed to relate directly
to the culminating experiences in the field.
The Diversity Dimension - Working Effectively With a Wide Range of Student Differences
The Diversity dimension exposes counseling candidates to cultural differences, diversity, and life style issues. This exposure is designed to examine useful strategies for the needs of a culturally, socially, and economically diverse American population. To address this important set of issues, each student is required to complete a course in Multicultural Counseling. In this setting, students are asked to explore personal attitudes, values, behaviors, and communication styles that could impede or facilitate a cross-cultural relationship. The student is asked to identify, provide, and implement strategies for culturally responsive practices. In addition, these concepts are integrated across the whole curriculum.
The communities and schools in which counseling graduates live and work are diverse in ethnic, race, socioeconomic factors, language backgrounds, and cultural norms. Fresno and its surrounding areas are home to diverse cultures such as Hmong, Hispanics, Asian Americans, etc. Fresno Unified School District is the fourth largest in the state and has a student population that reflects some eighty plus language diversity in the homes.
Sue and Sue (2003) state that the goals of a multicultural counseling program should
be to help the counselor “become aware of his or her own assumptions about human behavior,
values, biases, preconceived notions, personal limitations…understand the worldview
of his or her culturally different client…develop and practice appropriate, relevant,
and sensitive intervention strategies and skills in working with his or her culturally
The successful student in the counseling program will be able to understand:
- current economic trends;
- social class structure;
- current trends in occupational structure and employment;
- effects of ability grouping and tracking;
- trends in school desegregation;
- home environment and school achievement;
- the issues surrounding the relationship between culture and cognitive style;
- the importance of language and literacy development; and
- the importance of alternative assessment techniques.