DESCRIPTION: Spring ritual song; "Robin Hood and Little John they both are gone to fair-O"'; other verses similar. Cho.: "Hal-an-tow/Jolly rumble-O/For we are up as soon as any day-O/For to fetch the summer home, the summer and the May-O...."
EARLIEST DATE: possibly 1660 (mentioned by Nicholas Boson of Newlyn); first actual text 1846 (Sandys); Palmer claims another text from 1838
LONG DESCRIPTION: Spring ritual song; "Robin Hood and Little John they both are gone to fair-O"; "Where are the Spaniards that made so great a boast-O/They shall eat the goose feather and we shall have the roast-O"; "Of all the knights in Christendom St. George he is the right-O." Chorus: "Hal-an-tow/Jolly rumble-O/For we are up as soon as any day-O/For to fetch the summer home, the summer and the May-O/For summer is a comin' in and winter is a-gone."
KEYWORDS: magic ritual dancing nonballad Robinhood
FOUND IN: Britain(England(South))
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Dixon-Peasantry, Song #12, pp. 187-189, "The Helstone Furry-day Song" (1 text)
Bell-Combined, pp. 387-389, "The Helstone Furry-Day Song" (1 text)
Reeves-Circle 62, "The Hal-an-Tow" (1 text)
Kennedy 92, "Hal-An-Tow" (1 text + Cornish translation, 1 tune)
Palmer-ECS, #135, "Helston Furry Dance" (1 text, 1 tune)
Haile an Taw and Jolly Rumbelow
NOTES [1079 words]: A May song and Maypole dance. A version is still performed along with the Helston Furry Dance on May 8th of every year. Kennedy's Cornish words are a revivalist translation from the English. The phrase "Hal-an-tow [taw]" is variously translated as "heave on the rope" and "hoist the roof." - PJS
Both "hal-an(d)-to" and "rumbelo/rumble-o" have provoked extensive scholarly discussion. No decisive answer seems to have been found. The phrases seem to date back at least to the beginning of the fourteenth century, however; Chambers, p. 74, quotes, with an astonishing lack of source detail, one of the "Brut" chronicles concerning the battle of Bannockburn:
Maydenes of Engelande, sare may ye morne,
For tynt [presumably past tense of tine, lose, forfeit] ye have youre lemmans at Bannokesborn,
What wende [thought] the Kyng of Engleand
To have ygete Scotlande
Celia and Kenneth Sisam, The Oxford Book of Medieval English Verse, Oxford University Press, 1970; corrected edition 1973, #282, p. 554, has the same text but uses different punctuation and orthography:
Maidenes of Engelande, sare may ye mourne,
For tint ye have youre lemmans at Bannokesbourne,
What! wende the King of Engeland [i.e. here read "Did the king of England think"]
Have y-gete Scotlande?
The ultimate source of this is Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B. 171, f. 119a, dated c. 1400.
Chambers explains both "hevalogh" and "rumbylogh" as "boating refrains," but does not show any supporting evidence, although this is accepted, e.g., by Phillips, p. 11n. Chambers also says that Fabyan's Chronicle (1516) has a similar rhyme, which is described as a dance and carol (p. 180). Wells, p. 209, , discussing Fabyan, mentions "six lines of tail-rime made by the English 'in reproche of ye Scottes' whom they had beaten in the attempt to relieve Dumbar; a six-line tail-rime stanza like that sung by the mariners in [the thirteenth century metrical romance] Richard Coer de Lyon ('with heua a lowe -- with rumbylowe')"; presumably this is the source of the Chambers comment, but no one gives a line citation from the romance (which was popular in its time but now relatively rarely studied or reprinted), so I can't check it.
Prestwich, p. 81, offers what seems to be a translation of the above rhyme, which he describes as "a song mocking the oarsman's chant of 'Heavalow, Rumbalow'":
Maidens of England, sore may you mourn,
For you have lost your men at Bannockburn with 'Heavalow'.
What, would the king of England have won Scotland with 'Rumbalow'?"
Prestwich's source for this is F. W. D. Brie, editor, The Brut, Early English Text Society, 1906, 1908, volume i, p. 208 (i.e. the same original source as Chambers; cited also by Phillips, p. 11, who quotes both the original and the translation and also gives a little of the context).
Greene, p. 26, gives yet another slightly different version, this one from Fabyan's Chronicle (as printed by Pynson in 1516) rather than the manuscript:
Than the Scottish enflamyd with pryde, in derysyon of Englysshe men, made this ryme as foloweth.
Maydens of Englonde, sore maye ye morne.
For your lemmans ye haue loste at Bannocisborne,
With heue a lowe.
What wenyth the kynge of Englonde,
So soone to haue wonne Sotlande
This songe was after many dayes sungyn, in daunces, in carolis of ye maydens & mynstrellys of Scotlande, to the reproofe and dysdayne of Englysshe men, w[i]t[h] dyuerse other which I ouer passe.
Evelyn Kendrick Wells, The Ballad Tree, pp. 204-205, has this same version (with minor variants), also attributed to Fabyan's Chronicle.
This piece is #3331 in the Digital Index of Middle English Verse, which says it is found in 21 witnesses -- an extraordinarily high number. It is #2039 in the Brown/Robbins Index of Middle English Verse. Readers may consult the Index for a list of sources. The DIMEV lists the texts of many of the versions; the variations are dramatic.
Kennedy offers two alternate explanations for the words. One agrees in part with Chambers: Dutch "Haal aan het tow, "haul on the rope" was taken over by Cornish sailors as "hal-an-tow." Alternately, "hal an to/taw" may be Cornish for "raise the roof." It is not obvious how this phrase, whatever its origin, would be combined with the northern "rombylogh."
The verse about the "Spaniards that made so great a boast-O" presumably refers to the Spanish Armada of 1588, which signally failed to invade England and suffered losses of thousands of men and dozens of ships.
Kennedy's Cornish words are by Talek and Yleweth, as are many of his other Cornish songs. Talek (E. G. R. Hooper) is perhaps the most interesting of the Cornish revivalists. Berresford Ellis, pp. 182-183, has this to say of him:
With the death of Nance, E. G. R. Hooper (Talek) was elected as [the third] Barth Mur [Grand Bard]... in 1959 [and served until 1965 when the rules forced election of another]. Hooper has been a great benefactor to the revival by his publication of much work that would otherwise have gone unnoticed. Perhaps his most notable achievement has been the editing and production of the all-Cornish periodical An Lef Kernewek in which has appeared much of the most notable writing in Unified Cornish.... A prolific translator and writer, he edited Kemysk Kernewek, a miscellany... in Cornish, published in 1964. An Lef Kernerek have also published, in 1962, Lyver Hymnys ha Salmow, containing 100 hymns and psalms in Cornish.
Parry/Shipley is not complimentary of most Cornish literature, which it calls amateurish, but mentions Talek's Kernow yn Catalunya ["A Cornishman in Cataluna"] as one of the few exceptions
Whether any of these explanations is true, or none, the "rumbelow" refrain was well enough known that W. S. Gilbert used it in "The Mikado." In Act I, lines 67-71 (p. 265 in Gilbert/Sullivan/Bradley), we find the chorus
Then man the capstan -- of we go,
As the fiddler swings us round.
WIth a yeo heave ho,
And a rumbelow,
Hurrah for the homeward bound!
Bradley often has notes on Gilbert's sources, but of this he can only say "rumbelow: A meaningless combination of syllables or words, like 'yeo heave ho', used as a refrain by sailors when rowing or performing some other routine and rhythmical task. In some editions of the libretto the phrase is altered to 'a rum below'."
Alexander, p. 99, also gives a reinterpretation, printing "Jolly Rumble, O!" for "jolly rumbalow." - RBW
Last updated in version 4.3
- Alexander: Marc Alexander, A Companion to the Folklore, Myths & Customs of Britain, Sutton Publishing, 2002
- Chambers: E. K. Chambers, English Literature at the Close of the Middle Ages, Oxford, 1945, 1947
- Ellis: P. Berresford Ellis, The Cornish Language and its Literature, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974
- Gilbert/Sullivan/Bradley: Ian Bradley, editor, The Annotated Gilbert and Sullivan 1, Penguin, 1982 (I use the slightly revised 1985 edition)
- Greene: Richard Greene, editor, A Selection of English Carols, Clarendon Medieval and Tudor Series, Oxford/Clarendon Press, 1962
- Parry/Shipley: John H. Parry, article on Cornish in Joseph T. Shipley, editor, Encyclopedia of Literature, Philosophical Library, 1946 [a collection of articles about the literatures of various languages of the world)
- Phillips: Seymour Phillips, Edward II, Yale 2010
- Prestwich: The Three Edwards: War and State in England 1272-1377, 1980 (I use the 2001 Routledge paperback edition)
- Wells: John Edwin Wells, A Manual of the Writings in Middle English 1050-1400, 1916 (references are to the 1930 fifth printing with three supplements)
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