Frere Jacques (Are You Sleeping; Brother John)
DESCRIPTION: French: "Frere Jacques (x2), Dormez-vous (x2), Sonnez les matines (x2), Din din don (x2)." English: "Are you sleeping (x2), Brother John? (x2), Morning bells are ringing (x2), Ding ding dong (x2)."
EARLIEST DATE: 1811 (melody in "Le Clw du Caveau...")
FOUND IN: US France
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Silber-FSWB, p. 412, "Frere Jacques (Brother John)" (1 English and 1 French text)
Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 268, "Brother John" (1 text, tune referenced)
Jack, p. 38, "Frere Jacques" (1 text)
Fuld-WFM, pp. 237-238
ADDITIONAL: Edith Fowke and Richard Johnston, _Folk Songs of Quebec (Chansons de Quebec)_, Waterloo Music Company, 1957, p. 11, "Frere Jacques (Brother John)" (1 French text plus English translation, 1 tune)
Turkey Dinner (Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 21)
Next Thanksgiving (Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 21)
Perfect Posture (Pankake-PHCFSB, p. 74)
NOTES: Fuld reports that a manuscript copy of this tune was made c. 1780 (under another title); the melody was published in 1811. Words and music were first published together in 1860.
Jack lists several monks of friars who might be the subject of this song, including notably Jacques de Molay, the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar (for whose death see the notes to "King Henry Fifth's Conquest of France" [Child 164]) -- but even he concedes that none of these is likely. - RBW
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