Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean (Britannia, the Pride of the Ocean)

DESCRIPTION: "Oh, (Columbia/Britania) the (gem/pride) of the ocean... Thy banners make tyranny tremble When borne by the red, white, and blue." The singer boasts of his nation's success in war and its liberty
AUTHOR: unknown
EARLIEST DATE: 1844 (sheet music)
KEYWORDS: patriotic nonballad
FOUND IN: US Britain
REFERENCES (6 citations):
Huntington-TheGam-MoreSongsWhalemenSang, pp. 310-311, "Columbia the Gem of the Ocean"
Heart-Songs, p. 469, "The Red, White and Blue" (1 text, 1 tune)
Silber/Silber-FolksingersWordbook, p. 44, "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean" (1 text)
Colonial-Dames-AmericanWarSongs, pp. 61-62, "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean" (1 text)
Fuld-BookOfWorldFamousMusic, pp. 176-177+, "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean"
ADDITIONAL: Harry Dichter and Elliott Shapiro, _Early American Sheet Music: Its Lure and Its Lore, 1768-1889_, R. R. Bowker, 1941, p. 72, has a description of the sheet music

Roud #25988
Bodleian, Harding B 26(565), "Red, White and Blue", J. Moore ["Poet's Box"] (Belfast), 1846-1852 ; also Firth b.25(217) View 2 of 2 [difficult to read], Harding B 15(255b)[some lines illegible], Harding B 11(3246), Harding B 11(3401), "[The] Red, White, and Blue"; Firth b.26(377), "Britannia! the Pride of the Ocean"; Harding B 11(396), "Nelsons Last Sigh" or "The Red White & Blue"
LOCSheet, sm1844 410890, "Columbia the Gem of the Ocean", Osbourn's Music Saloon (Philadelphia), 1844; also sm1846 411040, "Columbia the Land of the Brave" (tune)
LOCSinging, cw104810, "Red, White & Blue" ("Oh, Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean"), J. Andrews (New York), 1853-1859; also sb40454a, "Red, White & Blue"; cw10102a, cw101030, cw101040, "Columbia the Gem of the Ocean"
NLScotland, L.C.Fol.178.A.2(015), "Red, White, and Blue", 1849, Mclntosh (Calton[Glasgow?]); also L.C.1269(175a), "Britannia, the Pride of the Ocean"

cf. "Dixie, the Land of King Cotton" (tune)
Jackson County (File: McIn022)
"Nobody Hurt" (Old Abe) ("Mr. Lincoln a great speech was making," by John Ross Dix) (Wolf-AmericanSongSheets p. 110)
People's Campaign Song, No. 1. Lincoln & Hamlin ("Oh! Lincoln the hope of the nation") (Wolf-AmericanSongSheets p. 126)
Columbia the Land of the Brave (Lawrence-MusicForPatriotsPoliticiansAndPresidents, p. 301)
The Gem of All Orders ("The Grange of the Gem of all orders") (by A. P. Knapp) (Albert P. Knapp, _Grange Songster_, 1915, p. 8)
The Home Guard ("Who will stand for the homes of our nation, The homes that were built by the brave") (by Kate Lunden Sunderlin) (Anna Adams Gordon, _Popular Campaign Songs_, National W.C.T.U. Publishing House, 1915, p. 18)
The Red, White and Black (by Ruth Lawrence) ("The Kaiser was counting his conquests") (Colonial-Dames-AmericanWarSongs, p. 181)
The Red, White and Blue
NOTES [452 words]: Fuld reports considerable controversy about the origin of this song: It is probably not possible, at this time, to tell with certainty whether the original is the American "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean" or the British "Britannia, the Pride of the Ocean."
The earliest printed version, called "Columbia the Land of the Brave," was printed in 1843 and credited to George Willig. In 1852, a copy of "Brittania the Gem of the Ocean" was filed at the British Museum; it credits the song to D[avid]. T. Shaw (who sang the American version, and who is also credited in a number of American broadsides listed on p. 133 of Edwin Wolf 2nd, American Song Sheets, Slip Ballads, and Political Broadsides 1850-1870, Library Company of Philadelphia, 1963 -- who lists 15 different broadsides of the Amerivan version). This version, however, was not filed in the stationer's register.
The song has also been credited to Stephen Joseph Meany (words) and Thomas E. Williams (music; died 1854) (cf. Spaeth, A History of Popular Music in America, p. 98, who dates their "Britannia" version to 1854), and to the performer Thomas A. Beckett (so Colonial-Dames-AmericanWarSongs, although it spells his name "Becket"), but substantiating evidence is lacking in both cases. (e.g. Heart-Songs lists the words by D. T. Shaw and music by Thomas A Becket -- note the lack of a period in the latter; apparently the editor thought they meant Henry II's archbishop!) If you want the full details, you'd best see both Spaeth and Fuld. - RBW
The 1844 sheet music, LOCSheet sm1844 410890 notes "A Popular Song as sung by Mr Blankman & Mr Shaw." The 1846 sheet music LOCSheet sm1846 411040, and broadside LOCSinging cw101030 make David T. Shaw the writer.
The 1849 broadside NLScotland L.C.Fol.178.A.2(015) third verse refers to "the memory of Nelson" (1758-1805). The 1856 broadside NLScotland L.C.1269(175a) third verse refers to "the mem'ry of Napier": "This could be either Naval Commander Charles Napier (1786-1860) or more likely, as the tribute appears to be posthumous, General sir Charles Napier (1782-1853), who achieved significant military victories in the Indian sub-continent." Broadside Bodleian Harding B 26(565) refers to "the memory of heroes." Broadside Bodleian Firth b.25(217) View 2 of 2 appears to refer to Charlie Napier. The remaining Bodleian broadsides -- Harding B 15(255b), Harding B 11(3246), Harding B 11(3401), Firth b.26(377) and Harding B 11(396) -- refer to Nelson. The "Columbia" versions refer to "they."
Broadside LOCSinging cw104810: J. Andrews dating per Studying Nineteenth-Century Popular Song by Paul Charosh in American Music, Winter 1997, Vol 15.4, Table 1, available at FindArticles site. - BS
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File: FSWB044

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