# Physics, M.S.

# Department

## Department of Physics

Douglas Singleton, Interim Chair

McLane Hall, Room 173

559.278.2371

FAX: 559.278.7741

www.fresnostate.edu/physics

### Degrees and Programs Offered

BS in Physics, B.S.

BS in Biomedical Physics, B.S.

CRED in Single Subject Credential - Physical Science

MN in Physical Science, Minor

MN in Physics, Minor

MN in Medical Physics, Minor

MN in Astronomy, Minor

MS in Physics, M.S.

The Department of Physics has an active theoretical physics program that focuses on gravitational physics and field theory. We have ongoing collaborations with several international research groups including the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, the Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology (VNIIMS) at the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, and the Universidad de Costa Rica. Our students in this area regularly attend national and international conferences to give talks, and they are active in publishing their research work in refereed journals. Several international researchers have visited our department and engaged in collaborative research, colloquia, and seminars.

# Courses

## Physics

###### EHD 154B. Final Student Teaching Seminar - Physical Science

Prerequisites: Concurrent enrollment in EHD 155B. Seminar to accompany final student teaching that provides opportunities for candidates to investigate and discuss variety of topics and strategies and to reflect on issues that surface during their student teaching experience.

Units: 1

###### EHD 155B. Studt Tchg P Sci

Prerequisites: admission to student teaching, EHD 155A, CI 161 (or concurrently, depending on major departmental policy); senior or post baccalaureate standing; approval of major department including subject matter competency approval; completion of the subject matter preparation program or passing the subject matter examination(s) designated by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. Supervised teaching in single subject classroom; assignment is for the full day; five days per week. CR/NC grading only.

Units: 5-10, Repeatable up to 20 units

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

###### PHYS 2A. General Physics

Prerequisites: MATH 6 or DS 71 or MATH 75 or MATH 75A or MATH 70 (or permission to register from department office). Topics and concepts in Newtonian mechanics of point particles and rigid bodies, energy, properties of fluids, heat and thermodynamics, waves and sound. G.E. Breadth B1. (3 lecture, 3 lab hours)

Units: 4

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring, Summer

GE Area: B1

###### PHYS 2B. General Physics

Prerequisite: PHYS 2A with a grade C or better. Topics and concepts in light, electricity, magnetism, atomic structure, relativity, quantum nature of light and matter, nuclear structure and radiation. (3 lecture, 3 lab hours)

Units: 4

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

###### PHYS 4A. Mechanics and Wave Motion

Prerequisite: G.E. Breadth B4 with a grade of C or better; Math 75 or Math 75A and Math 75B; MATH 76 with a C grade or better. MATH 76 may be taken concurrently Topics in classical Newtonian mechanics including linear and circular motion; energy; linear and angular momentum; systems of particles; rigid body motion; fluids; gravity; wave motion and sound. G.E. Breadth B1 when taken with PHYS 4AL.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

GE Area: B1

###### PHYS 4AL. Laboratory in Mechanics and Wave Motion

Corequisite: PHYS 4A. Introduction to laboratory methods. Experiments in mechanics, waves, and sound. G.E. Breadth B1. (3 lab hours)

Units: 1

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

GE Area: B1

###### PHYS 4B. Electricity, Magnetism, and Heat

Prerequisites: PHYS 4A with a grade of C or better; MATH 77 with a C grade or better (may be taken concurrently). Topics in classical physics including heat and thermodynamics, electrostatics, electric fields and potential, currents and AC and DC electric circuits, magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

###### PHYS 4BL. Laboratory in Electricity, Magnetism, and Heat

Corequisite: PHYS 4B. Experiments in electricity, magnetism, heat, and thermodynamics. (3 lab hours)

Units: 1

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

###### PHYS 4C. Light and Modern Physics

Prerequisites: PHYS 4B with a grade of C or better, MATH 77 with a grade of C or better. Maxwell's Equations, geometrical optics; electromagnetic radiation; physical optics; introduction to special relativity; quantum physics; and the physics of atoms, nuclei, and the solid state.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

###### PHYS 10. Conceptual Physics

Prerequisite:G.E. Foundation B4 (except for those with declared majors in the College of Science and Mathematics.) Basic ideas of physics and their relationship to the everyday environment. Physical phenomena, misconceptions, terminology, scientific method, and metric system. Memorable demonstrations in lectures; household-related experiments in the lab. G.E. Breadth B1. (3 lecture, 2 lab hours)

Units: 4

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

GE Area: B1

###### PHYS 90. Directed Study

Prerequisite: any university-level physics or physical science course. Individually arranged course of study in some limited area of physics, either to remove a deficiency or to in vestigate in more depth. (1-2 hours to be arranged)

Units: 1-2, Repeatable up to 3 units

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

###### PHYS 100. Concepts of Quantum Physics

Prerequisites: G.E. Foundation and Breadth Area B. Key discoveries in Quantum physics and conceptual development of quantum theory. Lecture demonstration of experiments, graphical visualization of theory, hi-tech applications. G.E. Integration IB (3 lecture hours)

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

GE Area: IB

###### PHYS 102. Modern Physics

Prerequisite: PHYS 4C; MATH 81 (may be taken concurrently). Fundamental concepts of atomic and nuclear structure, transitions and radiation. Includes discussions of relativistic mechanics, quantum mechanics, solid state physics. Special topics as they pertain to modern developments in physic, engineering, and chemistry.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall

###### PHYS 104. Experimental Techniques in Condensed Matter Physics

Prerequisites: PHYS 4C. Shop techniques and safety instructions. Basic concepts in condensed matter physics. Measurements of conductivity, energy gap in semiconductors, drift mobility, Hall coefficients, photoconductivity, magnetic susceptibilities, excition spectra, dieletric loss. Experience in X-ray diffraction, vacuum technology, thin-film deposition, and low temperature techniques. (1 lecture, 9 lab hours)

Units: 4

Course Typically Offered: Spring

###### PHYS 105A. Analytical Mechanics

Prerequisite: PHYS 4C: MATH 81 (may be taken concurrently). (A) Analytical and vector treatment of the fundamental principles of statics, kinematics, and dynamics. Prerequisite: PHYS 105A. (B) Advanced dynamics; harmonic motion, central force fields, and Lagrange's equations.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall

###### PHYS 105B. Analytical Mechanics

Prerequisite: PHYS 105A. (B) Advanced dynamics; harmonic motion, central force fields, and Lagrange's equations.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Spring

###### PHYS 107A. Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism

Prerequisites: PHYS 105A, MATH 81. (A) Mathematical analysis of electrostatics and magnetostatics, Gauss'law, solutions of Laplace's equation, images, theory of conduction, magnetic potentials. (B) Prerequisites: PHYS 107A. Motion of ions in electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction, Maxwell's equations and wave propagation, electron theory, and magnetic properties.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall

###### PHYS 107B. Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism

Prerequisites: PHYS 107A. Motion of ions in electric and magnetic fields, electgromagnetic induction, Maxwell's equations and wave propagation, electron theory, and magnetic properties.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Spring

###### PHYS 110. Physical Optics

Prerequisites: PHYS 4C, MATH 81. Theory of optical phenomena; wave theory of light with applications to optical instruments; interference and diffraction phenomena, dispersion, polarization, coherence, and laser phenomena. Practical experience in using lasers and optical instruments. (2 lecture, 3 lab hours)

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall

###### PHYS 115. Quantum Mechanics

Prerequisites: PHYS 102, PHYS 105A, MATH 81. PHYS 170A strongly recommended. Historical background, postulates, meaning, and methods of quantum mechanics; applications to atomic phenomena.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Spring

###### PHYS 135. Introduction to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

Prequisites: PHYS 4A, PHYS 4AL, PHYS 4B, PHYS 4BL and PHYS 4C. Introduction to fundamentals of nuclear magnetic resonance and application in imaging and spectroscopy in-vivo. T1, T2, PD-weighted images, spin echo sequence, artifacts in images, and clinical applications of cerebral metabolites in 1D neurospectroscopy. Lab at VACCHCS. (3 lecture hours, 3 lab hours).

Units: 4

Course Typically Offered: Fall

###### PHYS 136. Radiation Physics

Prerequisite: PHYS 102. The interaction of radiation with matter: photoelectric, Compton and pair production processes, neutron and charged particle interactions, linear energy transfer, quality factor, attenuation coefficients, shielding. Biological effects, RBE, internal dose, permissible exposures, beneficial application. Instrumentation.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall

###### PHYS 137. Radiation Measurements Laboratory

Prerequisite: PHYS 136. Advanced experiments in atomic and nuclear physics. Radiation safety. Gamma ray, X-ray, and particle detection and spectroscopy. Application of Gas-filled detectors, Scintillators and High Purity Germanium Detectors. Statistics and error analysis. (1 lecture, 4 lab hours). Formerly PHYS 130.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Spring

###### PHYS 140. Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory

Prerequisite: PHYS 102, MATH 81. Fundamental concepts and laws of classical thermodynamics. Rudiments of kinetic theory and statistical thermodynamics with application to physical and chemical systems.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall

###### PHYS 150. Astrophysics

Prerequisites: PHYS 4C. Introduction to celestial mechanics, spectral classification, stellar atmospheres and interiors, star formation and evolution, variable stars, neutron stars, pulsars, black holes, the nature of galaxies, and the expansion of the universe.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Spring

###### PHYS 151. Observational Astronomy

Prerequisites: PHYS 4C. Celestial coordinates, time, stellar motions, constellations, star charts, catalogs, astronomical sources, observational limits, telescopes, detectors, atmospheric effects, digital image processing, photometry, and spectroscopy. (3 lecture, 3 lab hours). (Formerly PHYS 175T)

Units: 4

Course Typically Offered: Fall

###### PHYS 155. Seminar in Biomedical Physics/Neurosciences

Prerequisite: Biomedical Physics Major or permission of the Department Chair. One-to-one interaction with invited speakers giving talks onthe state-of-the-art in medical imaging including MR, CT, PET, SPECT, etc, new radiation oncology systems such as CYBERKNIFE, IMRT, etc, neurobiology, radiobiology, and molecular imaging.

Units: 1, Repeatable up to 2 units

###### PHYS 156. Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging Physics

Pre-requisite: PHYS 136. The fundamentals of x-ray production, image quality, digital radiography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography. Image artifacts. Quality assurance or equipment and radiation dose. Lab at the VACCHCS. (3 lecture hours, 3 lab hours)

Units: 4

###### PHYS 157. Nuclear Medicine Physics

Prerequisite: PHYS 136. Fundamentals of nuclear imaging. Gamma camera, basic principles and performance characteristics. Emission tomography: SPECT and PET, basic principles and performance characteristics. Clinical applications. Lab at the VACCHCS. (3 lecture hours, 3 lab hours).

Units: 4

###### PHYS 158. Radiation Oncology Physics

Prerequisite: PHYS 136. Introduction to linear accelerators, geometry of photon beams, photon beam and electron beam dosimetry, treatment planning, brachytherapy, clinical applications, and new techniques. (3 lecture hours).

Units: 3

###### PHYS 162. Condensed Matter Physics

Prerequisites: PHYS 102, or CHEM 110B and permission of instructor. Classification of solids; crystalline state and lattice vibrations; properties of metallic lattices and dielectrics; magnetic properties of solids; free electron theory and band theory of metals; semiconductors; imperfections.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 163. Introduction to Particle Physics and ATLAS Experiment of LHC at CERN

Prerequisites: PHYS 4A and PHYS 4B. PHYS 4C is strongly recommended. Online course to 17 CSU Nuclear and Particle Physics Consortium (NUPAC) campuses, especially those intended to work at CERN on ATLAS research during summer (Formerly PHYS 175T).

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Fall

###### PHYS 168S. Physics Outreach

Prerequisite: Any one of the following courses: NSCI 1A, PHYS 10, PHYS 2A, PHYS 4A. Provides science majors and future teachers hands-on experience demonstrating physics in K-12 schools. Best practices based on education research, theories of science instruction, and core concepts in physics in a service-learning environment. (2 lecture, 3 lab hours) FS

Units: 3

###### PHYS 170A. Mathematical Physics

Prerequisite: PHYS 4A and MATH 81. Application of mathematical methods to the solution of problems in physics.

Units: 3

Course Typically Offered: Spring

###### PHYS 171. Analytical Methods

Prerequisite: PHYS 102, PHYS 110, PHYS 105A, PHYS 105B, PHYS 107A, PHYS 115, PHYS 140 (PHYS 105B and PHYS 115 may be taken concurrently). Advanced analytical techniques in solving problems in core physics disciplines

Units: 2

###### PHYS 175T. Topics in Contemporary Physics

Designed to provide students with special work in such areas of physics as biophysics, modern optics, plasmas, high energy physics, solid state, chaos theory, nuclear structure, astrophysics, low temperature phenomena. Some topics may have labs.

Units: 1-4, Repeatable up to 12 units

###### PHYS 175T. Physics for Future Secondary School Teachers

Students completing this course will learn the skills needed to become successful physics teachers at the secondary school level. Students will develop the ability to employ student-centered and teacher-centered methods in the physics and lab design to meet the demands of the Next Generation Science Standards. Topics will span questioning strategies, lesson planning, as well as methods for teaching sound experimental techniques and scientific reasoning.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 175T. Orbital Mechanics

This course provides the foundations of basic gravitation and orbital theory, as applied to spaceflight. Topics include coordinate and timekeeping systtems, the two-body problem, and particle dynamics and motion under inverse square forces, particularly as applied to analytical, numerical, and computer solutions for spacecraft orbit determination, trajectories, time of flight, and maneuvers. Orbits for Earth satellites. The three-body problem: and interplanetary trajectories. Prerequisites: PHYS 4A and CSCI 40.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 175T. Fluid Mechanics

Prerequisite - Phys 105A. This course provides an introduction to continuum mechanics, primarily fluids but also touching on elasticity theory. Topics include the Euler equation, fluid statistics, potential flows and Bernoulli's equation, the Navier Stokes equation, scaling laws, stress and strain tensors, waves and vibrations.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 175T. Introduction to Medical Imaging

Introduction to Medical Imaging for Nurses, Physical Therapists and other Professionals in the Healt This course will cover an overview of multiple modalities in medical imaging such as x-rays, nuclear medecine. fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, etc.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 180. Seminar in Physics

Prerequisite: senior or graduate physics major or permission of department chair.

Units: 1, Repeatable up to 3 units

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

###### PHYS 190. Independent Study

See Academic Placement. Approved for RP grading.

Units: 1-3, Repeatable up to 6 units

Course Typically Offered: Fall, Spring

###### PHYS 203. Classical Mechanics

Prerequisites: PHYS 105B, PHYS 170A. Advanced treatment of classical analytical mechanics including Lagrange's and Hamilton's formulation of the laws of motion, special relativity, small oscillation theory, hydrodynamics.

Units: 4

###### PHYS 220A. Advanced Electricity and Magnetism

Prerequisites: PHYS 107B, PHYS 170A. Electromagnetic theory and its applications; electrostatics, boundary-value problems in electrostatics, dielectrics, multipoles, magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic radiation, optical properties of materials, wave guides and resonant cavities.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 220B. Advanced Electricity and Magnetism

Prerequisites: PHYS 107B, PHYS 170A. Electromagnetic theory and its applications; electrostatics, boundary-value problems in electrostatics, dielectrics, multipoles, magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic radiation, optical properties of materials, wave guides and resonant cavities.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 222A. Quantum Mechanics I

Prerequisite: PHYS 115, PHYS 170A. Quantum Dynamics: representations and pictures, path integrals, evolution operator, propagators. Angular Momentum: orbital and spin, addition. Perturbation Theory: time-independent and time-dependent problems, sudden and adiabatic approximations. Scattering: Lippman-Schwinger equations, scattering matrix, Born approximation, partial waves.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 222B. Quantum Mechanics II

Prerequisite: PHYS 222A. Identical Particles: fermions and bosons, second quantization. Electromagnetic Fields: radiation field, photons, coherent states, vacuum state and Casimir effect, interactions with charged particles. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics: Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, relativistic hydrogen atom, perturbation theory and Feynman diagrams.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 262. Advanced Condensed Matter Physics

Prerequisites: PHYS 115, PHYS 162, PHYS 170A. Binding and crystal structure, crystal electron theories, elementary excitations, transport theories, crystal defects, superconductivity.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 270. Advanced Mathematical Physics

Prerequisite: PHYS 170A. Group theory, including continuous (Lie) groups, Lie algebras, and an introduction to the theory of representations, Green's functions and their applications to physical problems, and integral equations including diagrammatic methods of solution.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 272. General Relativity

Prerequisite: PHYS 203. The principle of equivalence, tensor calculus in curved space-times, the Einstein-Hilbert equations, the Schwarzschild solution, tests of general relativity, gravitational radiation, introduction to cosmology.

Units: 3

###### PHYS 275T. Topics in Contemporary Physics

Advanced topics in such areas as modern optics, plasma physics, high energy physics, astrophysics, nuclear physics, biophysics. Some topics may have labs.

Units: 1-3, Repeatable up to 6 units

###### PHYS 290. Independent Study

See Academic Placement. Approved for RP grading.

Units: 1-3, Repeatable up to 6 units

###### PHYS 298. Project

Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Scholarly investigation by the advanced graduate student as a culminating experience for the master's degree, including a written project report and an oral defense, and followed by a competency exam. Approved for RP grading.

Units: 2-6

###### PHYS 298C. Project Continuation

Pre-requisite: Project PHYS 298. For continuous enrollment while completing the project. May enroll twice with department approval. Additional enrollments must be approved by the Dean of Graduate Studies.

Units: 0

###### PHYS 299. Thesis

Prerequisite: See. Preparation, completion, and submission of an acceptable thesis for the master's degree. Approved for RP grading.

Units: 2-6

###### PHYS 299C. Thesis Continuation

Pre-requisite: Thesis PHYS 299. For continuous enrollment while completing the thesis. May enroll twice with department approval. Additional enrollments must be approved by the Dean of Graduate Studies.

Units: 0

###### PSCI 21. Elementary Astronomy

Recommended: second-year high school algebra. Concepts, theories, important physical principles, and history of astronomy. Stellar properties, distances, and evolution. Three field trips for observing with telescopes. G.E. Breadth B1. ( 3 lecture, 2 lab hours) (Course fee, $34)

Units: 4

GE Area: B1

###### PSCI 131. Concepts of Classical Physics from Babylon to Maxwell

Prerequisites: General Education Quantitative Reasoning and Area B Breadth requirements. Concepts, theories, and laws of classical physics. Mathematics, astronomy, mechanics, light, electricity, magnetism, thermodynamics, chemistry, and the atom. G.E. Integration 1B.

Units: 3

GE Area: IB

###### PSCI 168. Energy and the Environment

Prerequisite: G.E. Foundation an Breath Area B. Analysis of energy crisis; introduction to various forms of energy, energy conversion processes and environmental effects; present energy supply and energy projections; future energy demands and ways of evaluating alternatives. G.E. Integration IB

Units: 3

GE Area: IB

###### PSCI 180T. Topics in Physical Science

Detailed discussion of special topics within the realm of physical science.

Units: 1-3, Repeatable up to 9 units

# Requirements

## Master of Science in Physics - Requirements

The objective of our M.S. program is to build a firm basis for subsequent Ph.D. study in physics or in related fields, for positions in industry, and for teaching at the community college level. We offer a broad-based academic program with the opportunity for specialized theoretical or experimental research. Students completing degrees have successfully pursued all three of these career goals - with roughly equal numbers going to doctoral programs and industry, and a smaller number directly into teaching.

Areas of research in which our faculty are active include physics pedagogy, condensed matter theory and experiment, characterization of materials properties (amorphous semiconductors), dipolar magnetism, Fullerene research, laser Raman spectroscopy, radiation medical physics, classical and quantum field theory, and gravitation. Faculty also study forces and interaction of fundamental constituents of matter with experiments using the world's most powerful particle accelerators at Fermi National Laboratory and CERN, Switzerland. Astronomy research includes observations of cataclysmic variables, black holes, and extrasolar planets. It is done with the most powerful instruments available today, including Hubble Space Telescope, and other NASA spacecraft, as well as many other telescopes around the world.

Under the direction of the graduate adviser and the graduate faculty, a coherent program, directed toward the student's goal in graduate study and designed within the framework outlined in the copy that follows, is prepared and submitted to the department. There is a standard core of classical mechanics (PHYS 203), classical electrodynamics (PHYS 220A, B) and quantum mechanics (PHYS 222A, B) which is strongly recommended for students planning to pursue further graduate study - and, at least in part, for all students. Other courses, both from within and from outside the department, can be used to complete the 30 unit master's program. A culminating experience, consisting of either a thesis (PHYS 299) or a project (PHYS 298) plus a competency examination, is required.

Undergraduate education equivalent to a physics major at California State University, Fresno is necessary for admission. Note the other requirements under Graduate Program.

Physics graduate courses (21 units)

PHYS 290 [minimum 3 units] and PHYS 298 or 299 [minimum 3 units] (6 units)

Additional graduate courses in physics (15 units)

Students planning further graduate study should include PHYS 203, 220A-B, 222A, and 222B.

Upper-division or graduate electives in physics or related fields (9 units)

**Total (30 units)**

### Graduate Program

The Department of Physics offers graduate instruction and research leading to the
Master of Science.

For general information, read the Graduate Studies section in this catalog, and in
particular, the sections on Admission to Graduate Standing, Advancement to Candidacy,
and Program Requirements. The minimum entrance requirements are a GPA of 2.5 over
the last 60 units, satisfactory scores on the GRE General Examination, and good references.
Although the GRE scores are not the only, or most important, criteria used in the
admission process, we generally look for scores above 150 on the quantitative portion
of the exam or for a total above 300 on the combined quantitative and verbal portions.
The GRE General Examination must be taken before applying for admission.

It is important to achieve classified standing quickly, before completion of 10 units.
The next step is advancement to candidacy, after completion of at least 9 units of
graduate study with a minimum GPA of 3.0 and satisfaction of the graduate writing
requirement. To satisfy the writing requirement, students must submit a formal paper
demonstrating writing skills at the graduate level. This graduate-level paper may
be a research proposal, a literature review in their field, a paper from a graduate-directed
research project, or another paper. Detailed writing requirement regulations are available
from the department's graduate coordinator. Please contact the graduate coordinator
for more information. Advancement also requires a score at or above the 25th percentile
on the Advanced Physics GRE Subject Examination, or a score at or above the median
in the Major Field Test (MFT) for Physics.

Teaching assistantships are usually available, as is general financial aid. For some
forms of financial aid, applications must be completed before the end of February.

For specific questions, consult the chair of the department or the graduate adviser/coordinator.

# Faculty

Our faculty members are here to teach and to do research. Several faculty members have research projects involving students. Two of our faculty members do theoretical work in particle physics and field theory while others are involved with numerous different experimental research fields; some of our faculty are involved in physics pedagogy.

For faculty phone numbers and e-mail, see the campus directory.

For more on the faculty, see the faculty pages.

The faculty pages are updated by the department or program.